Information is distributed through a multitude of functional and regional command chains. Used when business environment is changing and competitive. Allows business units to make autonomous decisions
Span of control
The number of subordinates under the authority of a manager
The leader makes essentially all of the decisions alone
Leader works with group members to make decisions
Administrative Model of Decision Making
Alternative to rational-Economic Decision Making Model; fast decision; bounded rationality; bounded discretion; satisficing
Lack of time, information, and financial resources to consider every possible alternative in real business
ethical or moral consideration can limit solutions considered
Organization elaboration of Administrative Decision-Making model; organizational goals often inconsistent with individual depts within organization; accepting satisfactory vs. optimal solution which allows avhmt of multiple goals
Systematic approach to decision-making that emphasizes a logical, step-by-step sequence in order to arrive at the best possible solution to a problem.
Generally outperform homogenous teams; better w/developing innovative solutions, but greater difficulty when task requires communication and careful coordination
Homogenous groups with high conscientiousness:
reduces social loafing, increases cohesion, and reduces conflict
Homogenous groups with high or low extraversion
can result in power struggles and lack of leadership
Highly heterogenous groups:
benefit from wide range of solutions, skills, and perspectives but may experience less organizational commitment, more turnover, and higher absenteeism rates
Highly homogenous groups:
have fewer ideas, skills and solutions, but more commitment.
Who works better in the short term? Homogenous or heterogenous groups?
Homogenous better in short term but heterogenous catch up in the long run
Patterns of info transmission and exchange between and among members of teams and groups, defining who communicates with whom, to what extent, and how often
Centralized Communication Network
Communication travels to a central person and is redistributed; not all members have access to one another to receive info; associated w/low job satisfaction, low speed and low accuracy on complex tasks; minimal communication for high speed communication and accuracy on simple talks. Person in middle has highest level of satisfation, especially with simple task.
Decentralized Communication Network
Member communicate directly in point-to-point fashion, all group members involved in communication, associated w/higher satisfaction, but low speed and accuracy on simple tasks; allows for efficient and effective commuincation, increasing speed and accuracy on complex tasks
Which communication network is better for large groups?
Centralized more efficient with larger group (8-20 members)
Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model
Leadership styles conceptualized in terms of task and relationship orientation. Optimal style is dependent upon the different levels of subordinate maturity, which is characterized by their willingness to accept responsibility.
Hersey and Blanchard's Employee psychological maturity
Self-confidence and self-respect: confidence and willingness to undertake assignments
Hersey and Blanchard's Employee job maturity
Level of job-related knowledge, skills, and abilities
Hersey and Blanchard's High employee maturity
Both job and psychological maturity
Hersey and Blanchard's Immaturity
lacking both job and psychological maturity
Hersey and Blanchard's Moderate Maturity
Have one (psychological or job), but lack the other
Hersey and Blanchard's Leadership Styles
Telling, selling, participating, and delegating
Hersey and Blanchard's Telling Style
Employees are less able, unwilling, and lack confidence (low maturity); leader focus is high task orientation, low relationship style, characterized by explicit task directions and close supervision
Hersey and Blanchard's Selling Style
Employees less able, but willing and confident (mod maturity); leader focus is high task orientation, high relationship orientation style; characterized by directions presented in persuasive, supportive manner.
Hersey and Blanchard's Participating Style
Employees able, but not confident or willing (mod maturity); leader focus is low task orientation, high relationship orientation style; characterized by shared ideas and responsibilities b/w leader and employees
Hersey and Blanchard's Delegating Style
Followers are able, willing, confident (high maturity); leader focus is low task orientation, low relationship orientation style; characterized my minimalist leadership style, while allowing employees to take responsibility for task completion and decisions