Quality over quantity; involve the employees and customers; eliminating erros and flaws at every level; multi-directional communication w/team goals/rewards; reduction in ratio of managers to non-managers; fairness emphasized for all employees; job changes focus on autonomy, feedback, significance, skill & variety of task
Findings about peer appraisals
Generally free from bias; useful for predicting future success or outcomes.
Worker bx; id'd by job incumbent and supervisors as particularly effective or ineffective in job performance; used in employee evals; conveyed in narrative and descriptive format; not quantitative uses (comparing employees or deciding comp); helpful in feddback situations and establishing objectives for training
Fiedler's LPC Theory
Includes least preferred co-worker; leader rates workers on 1-8 scale. If most rated high = relationship oriented; most rated low = task-oriented
LPC theory; Rx oriented best when
moderately favorable situation. Minimizez importance of completing tasks successfully, emphasizes importance of rx in office
LPC theory; task oriented best when
unfavorable situations. More effort in attempting to complete task efficiently, minimizes importance of relationships in office.
LPC Best Fit situation
Effectiveness of leaders is dependent on situational factors
Path Goal Theory
Deals witht he ways in which leaders can help employees achieve their goals, using one of 4 styles: directive, supportive, participative, and achievement-oriented.
There are 5 styles fo leader bx that can be placed on a continuum, ranging from autocratic to complete participation
Vertical Dyadic Linkage Theory
Focuses on the impact of the leader-superordinate relationship process. Employees are classified as in-group or out-group. Leaders are classified as supervisory or leadership.
Central tendency bias
Opposite of leniency/strictness bias; always rating employees with middle range scores
Occurs when a scale or items are constructed in such a way that the higher ends of the scale are unlikely choices, and the lowest choices do not capture the lowest choices raters might wish to make
When the accuracy of a judgment is affected by a prior case or instance
Ohio State Leadership Studies
Leadership model that emphasizes task and person leadershipe syles by assesing job-related bx; two major: Offers consideration (AKA Consideration) and Initiates Structure
Ohio State - Consideration
Emphasizes trust, respect, warmth, concern, support, and rapport between leader and superordinate. Higher levels of consideration = person-centered leadership, consistently related to greater subordinate satisfaction.
Ohio State - Initiating Structure
Emphasized formal goals, deadlines, task assignment, standard procedures, and high performance standards. Initiating supervisor defines goals and makes their expectations clear.
Leader expresses a vision that appeals to the higher moral fiber of the followers and in turn motivates them to become better than they are; Strategies are idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration.
Leader distributes rewards to followers as they behave in ways that assist in attaining work-related goals; major strategies include contingent rewards
Visionary leader emerges in a time of crisis (real or fabricated) and inspires followers to use novel strategies to achieve an organizational mission; followers internalize the values and beliefs of the leader and often attribute extraordinary characteristics to the leader
Self-managing groups; semi-autonomous work groups. Characterized by distributed leadership, shared decision-making, shared goals, cross-training, and job rotations
Self-Directed Teams and cross-training
Cross training is mandatory; learning skills to perform all group functions, reinforced thru routine switching of job tasks in the groups, provides coverage during absenteeism of a member
Outcome of cross-training
Workplace teams have higher levels of satisfaction, higher productivity, and less turnover because they are self-led.
Why cross-training is difficult
Employees and managers resist them, distrust and resistance to change are likely why, attitudes of success are localized to the team and do not generalize to positive thoughts of the organization
Normative Model of Leadership
Vroom and Yetton's model focuses on varisou decision-making styles and situational variables. It is assumed that commitment and acceptance are function of acceptance of the leader's decision and that acceptance is a function of participation in decision-making model.
Leader Vs. Manager characteristics
Manager has legitimate authority based on position. Leader is given the responsibility of directing and motivating behavior. Managers must have leadership qualities, but not all managers are effective leaders
Substitution of machines for humans to complete tasks. Can be seen as competition and problematic when not monitored.
Advantages of automation
Instances where humans can't work (extreme conditions); work that is important but tedious; work that is repetitive, physical, and mistake-prone. Frees humans for more satisfying work.
The degree of control and individual has over their job
Occurs when decision-making is made near the top of the organization because that is where power and authority are concentrated. Mgmt reports up through single chain of command. Used when business environment is stable and predictable.
When an individual chooses the first acceptable alternative rather than evaluation all possible alternatives