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Flashcards in I/O Psychology Deck (336)
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Frame of reference training

Focused on correcting possible rater distortions resulting from unintentional rater biases. Familiarized raters w/nature of job performance, content and nature of performance, good/bad work-related bx. More effective than psychometric training



Refers to the proportion of effectiveness to the cost incurred by achieving that effectiveness



The organizational practice of choosing the right individual for a job


Psychometric training

A method of rater training that focuses on raising rater awareness about common sources of rater bias in hopes that this awareness will reduce rating distortions


Administrative training

A type of rater training that focuses on compensating for scale deficiencies by developing consensus about, for example, definitions among raters.


Incentive/reinforcement theory

Assumes that desired bx can be obtained through use of incentive systems or tangible rewards. Rewards contingent on individual unit of productivity


Reinforcement theory - to change worker motivation

Adjust the way reinforcements are delivered, (salary, benefits, days off) or punish


Reinforcement theory - Highest rates of responding

When individuals are on partial reinforcement schedule or number of units produced


Locke's Goal-Setting Theory of Motivation

Asserts that setting specific and difficult goals motivates people and enhances performance


Equity Theory

Motivational theory that was developed by J. Stacey Adams who suggested that individuals relate their inputs (work efforts) and outcomes (compensation, promotions) relative to those of others.


Path-Goal Theory

Motivational and leadership theory that suggested that workers rationally weigh options before choosing how much effort to exert


Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory

States that motivation comes from the nature of the job itself, not from external awards or job compensation. (Job motivation and job satisfaction related to motivational factors - achmt, recognition, responsibility)


Competency modeling

Procedure for determining which characteristics or competencies are necessary to perform a job


Vestibule training

AKA "near the job training" in which the classroom is located in a set of conditions that closely replicate the actual working environment; one ex. use of stimulator


Components of training

Needs asset (organizational analysis, task analysis, person analysis); learning principles; transfer of training (to actual jobs); evaluation of the program


Job performance

Actions or bx relevant to the organization's goals, measured in terms of each individual's proficiency


Performance equation

performance is a function of ability and motivation


Job enrichment

AKA Vertical loading; expanding employees' tasks to give them greater autonomy, authority, and freedom; encourages employees to take up new and challenging tasks; has been found to increase job satisfaction and performance while decreasing turnover and absenteeism


Job enlargement

AKA horizontal loading; increasing the variety of tasks performed without increasing the employee's responsibility or autonomy; has been found to increase job satisfaction and slightly affects job performance


Job commitment

Emotional attachment or affective commitment to an organization; acceptance and belief in an organization's goals; willingness to help the organization achieve its goals; the perceived cost of living; and a sense of obligation


Predictors of job success

cognitive tests, work samples, personality traits interviews, biodata



Type of performance veal: a combo of ratings-based procedures and the critical incident technique. Bx CIs are ranked, sorted into relevant job dimensions, and used as subjective evaluative anchors by evaluators


Dimensions of a job (BARS)

Characterized by critical representative behaviors, which serve as judgmental anchors in the evaluation process


BARS Evaluators ratings

Based on their expectations that employees can engage in critical behaviors that are more or less important to the job


Advantages of behavioral anchors for BARS

Job-specific, strategically focused, has face-validity, considered a fair evaluation, and reduces rater bias and increases inter-rater reliability


Disadvantages of bx anchors for BARS

Time-consuming; requires extensive interaction with subject matter and experts


About creativity

Trait-like; primarily frontal-lobe; associated with openness to experience; related to IQ, convergent thinking; can be taught; creative ppl tend to be attracted to complexity


Human factors

A branch of psychology that is concerned with the match of individuals to the physical and psychological demands of particular workplaces. Includes: ergonomics, biomechanics, and human-technology interaction. Overlaps w/engineering psychology


TQM developed by

William Demming


TQM's origins

The US, Japan, and Europe. Japan earlier adopter of TQM.