Calling for high quantity of product as opposed to high quality
Locke: Highest performance for goal-setting:
goals self-set with no monetary reward
Goal setting and need for achievement
High need for achievement enhances goal-setting
Type D personality
Defined as "distressed" and indicated negative affect and social inhibition that affect health.
Types of work-family conflict
Time-based; strain -based (strain from one role effects performance of another); behaviorally-based (conflict due to incompatible bx between two competing roles)
How does path-goal theory recommend leadership style is chosen?
Consider the situational variables (task and employee characteristics)
Herzberg's low hygiene + low motivation
The worst work situation, resulting in unmotivated employees with multiple complaints
Herzberg's high hygiene + low motivation
Employees with few complaints, but aren't highly motivated. Work is seen simply as a paycheck
Job satisfaction and age
Older workers show higher level of satisfaction, younger workers more concerned with intrinsic factors (job challenge) vs extrinsic (security, salary)
related to satisfaction; workers should be matched with jobs suited to skills and individual needs
Pay and job satisfaction
Related to perception that one is being fairly paid, vs. the actual amount paid
Overall job satisfaction correlated with:
physical health, psychological health, and longevity
Job facet satisfaction
satisfaction/dissatisfaction with particular aspects of the job (salary, supervisor, workspace)
Herzberg's motivator needs
social, esteem, and actualization
Which work shift has greatest negative impact on social relationships?
Which work shifts causes problems with sleep loss?
Night and swing
A work arrangement in which employees can work from home anywhere from one day a week to every day
Correlates with job turnover
Length of time on the job, and expressed interest in staying
How much does turnover cost an organization?
1.5 times worker's salary
Ostroff, Kinicki, and Tamkins' 3 layers of Organizational Culture
Observable artifacts (drawing meaning and interpretation from surface level actions like symbols and language); expoused values (beliefs or concepts endorsed by mgmt or the organization); basic assumptions (unobservable, but at the core of the organization)
Focuses on the development of leadership qualities in the executive.
Who sets that ethical and professional standards for executive coaches?
International Coach Federation (ICF)
McGregor's Theory Z assumes
Workers are motivated, but still need informal, implicit supervision
McGregor's Theory Y
Workers are intrinsically motivated and self-directed and need little direct supervision; emphasizes the importance of Maslow's higher needs; emphasizes worker freedom and autonomy, and how these interact with organizational demands; more effective than Theory X
Worker's are motivated to perform better if they believe that a particular work behavior leads to particular outcomes, such as a raise (part of Vroom's theory)
Hackman and Oldman's GNS
Individual Growth Need Strength; individual differences to which workers desire personal growth and development from work. High GNS respond more strongly and benefit more from jobs with five core characteristics
how meaningful worker feels task is to organization
capacity for employees to use a wide range of skills
Vroom and Yetton's Qs to assess 8 situational variables
Quality requirement, commitment requirement, leader's information, problem structure, commitment probability, goal congruence, subordinate conflict, and subordinate information
Vroom and Yetton's C11
Leader asks subordinates as a collective group for their views and then makes a decision alone