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Flashcards in I/O Psychology Deck (336)
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271

Herzberg's low hygiene + low motivation

The worst work situation, resulting in unmotivated employees with multiple complaints

272

Four leadership styles of path-goal theory

Supportive (considerate and showing concern for subordinates); directive (communicating expectations and specific guidelines); participative (seeking out employee input); achievement-oriented (setting challenging goals, emphasizing excellence, and confidence in subordinates)

273

How does path-goal theory recommend leadership style is chosen?

Consider the situational variables (task and employee characteristics)

274

Gender findings for work-family conflict

Women experience greater work stress than men; women with children have highest levels of stress hormones; women have better coping strategies than men; having balance in work/family roles can have positive effect on self-esteem for women

275

Types of work-family conflict

Time-based; strain -based (strain from one role effects performance of another); behaviorally-based (conflict due to incompatible bx between two competing roles)

276

Type A/B in I/O field

Increased arousal for type A when deprived of work; learning new tasks equally stressful for both; social support stressful for Type A; work performance moderated by task variety for Type A; external locus of control lowers job satisfaction more for Type A than Type B individuals.

277

Type D personality

Defined as "distressed" and indicated negative affect and social inhibition that affect health.

278

Goal setting is most effective when:

tasks are difficult but less complex (Locke)

279

Goal setting and need for achievement

High need for achievement enhances goal-setting

280

Money and job performance

Money has a positive effect

281

Locke: Highest performance for goal-setting:

goals self-set with no monetary reward

282

Locke: Negative performance for goal-setting

Goals self-set with monetary rewards

283

Vroom's key elements to motivation

Valence (value); instrumentality (belief that efforts will matter); and expectancy (used to determine if increased effort will be beneficial)

284

McCelland's nAch

Need for achievement; preference for moderately difficult tasks, moderate risk, strive to reach goals,maintain high level of performance, prefer individual vs. group effort, work to completion, assume responsibility, committed to self-set goals, stay at jobs longer; gain satisfaction from task completion; seek recognition from others; tend to be highly correlated with job success

285

McCelland's Need for Power

Desire for control, influence, and responsibility for others and resources, preoccupied with status, look for promotions/upward mobility, can use power for greater good of the group; common goal of people: complete agreement and compliance from those around them

286

McCelland's Need for Affiliation

Emphasized establishment and maintenance of relationships, sensitive to criticism, relationship builders, conflict-avoidant, enjoy being an integral part of larger group, good team player, desire approval from others, and personal success tied to success of group; higher levels associated with entrepreneurial success

287

Maslow's steps to self-actualization

Physiological needs, safety, love/belongingness, status/esteem, self-actualization

288

Process consultation

a "helping" relationships that facillitates ability for managers/employees/groups to achieve goals. Consultant works with and not for the client.

289

Major assumption of process consultation

Behavior must change before attitudes can change

290

Focus of process consultation

Distinguishing and/or changing disruptive behaviors that negatively impact normal social processes.

291

Role of consultant in process consultation

observes, gives feedback on alternative strategies

292

Role of client in process consultation

learns to own their problems, gains necessary skills to problem-solve, gain expertise in diagnosing organizational/group problems

293

Loss aversion model

In situations involving uncertainty and possible risk, people prefer avoiding losses to obtaining gains. Considered irrational because it is based on perception more than reality

294

Two corollaries of loss aversion

Risk aversion (less likely to take risks to obtain gains) and risk seeking (more likely to seek risks to avoid losses)

295

Sunk costs

The more one invests in something the more unreasonable it seems to abandon it

296

Disjunctive task

A group task in which one solution to a particular problem is selected from a pool of options. Creates high-quality results as opposed to high quantity. Best performer can bring up the whole group. Success requires at least one member have necessary expertise.

297

Conjunctive task

A group task that cannot be completely successful until all members of the group have completed their portion of the job; therefore the least-skilled worker determines the speed and quality of the work.

298

Aggregate task

A combination of two or more group tasks or projects

299

Additive task

A group project or task that can be undertaken by aggregating individual members' efforts or contributions

300

Compensatory task

A task or project a group can complete by averaging together individual members' solutions and recommendations