Human Development, Diversity, and Behavior in Environment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Human Development, Diversity, and Behavior in Environment Deck (63)
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closed system (systems theory)

uses up its energy and dies


differentiation (systems theory)

becoming specialized in structure and function


entropy (systems theory)

closed, disorganized, stagnant; using up available energy


equifinality (systems theory)

arriving at the same end from different beginnings


homeostasis (systems theory)

steady state


input (systems theory)

obtaining resources from the environment that are necessary to attain the goals of the system


negative entropy (systems theory)

exchange of energy and resources between systems that promote growth and transformation


open system (systems theory)

a system with cross-boundary exchange


output (systems theory)

a product of the system that exports to the environment


subsystem (systems theory)

a major component of a system made up of two or more interdependent components that interact in order to attain their own purpose(s) and the purpose(s) of the system in which they are embedded


suprasystem (systems theory)

an entity that is served by a number of component systems organized in interacting relationship



energy that is integrated into the system so it can be used by the system to accomplish goals



energy that is integrated into the system so it can be used by the system to accomplish goals


family theory - closed versus open boundaries

closed: tight restrictions on where family members can go and who may be brought into the system; rules regulate what information may be discussed and with whom

open: members and others are allowed to freely come and go without much restriction; info flows freely


family theory - interdependence

individuals family members and subsystems are mutually influenced and are mutually dependent upon each other (i.e. what happens to one family member, or what one family member does, influences others)


family therapy approaches - Bowenian family therapy (8 concepts)

differentiation - if more, family member can be individual while in emotional contact with family. ct can think through situation without being drawn to act by internal/external emotional pressure

emotional fusion - counterpart of differentiation, tendency of family members to share emotional response. because of diffuse interpersonal boundaries. little room for emotional autonomy (moves towards autonomy seen as abandonment by others)

multigenerational transmission - connection of current generation to past generations, natural. gives present a context in history

emotional triangle - network of relationships among 3 people. a relationship stable until anxiety introduced in dyad, then third party recruited into triangle to reduce overall anxiety

nuclear family - basic unit of family relationship. tend to form relationships with others outside of family unit with similar level of differentiation

family projection process

sibling position - factor in determining personality, influence on how individual relates to parents, siblings; determines triangles

societal regression - Bowen viewed society as a family system, problems such as depletion of natural resource (leading to societal anxiety)


family therapy approaches - structural family therapy

social worker "joins" family in effort to restructure it

interpersonal boundaries - define individual family members and promote differentiation and autonomous, yet interdependent functioning. *rigid enmeshment* *disengagement*

boundaries with the outside world - define family unit, must be permeable enough to maintain well-functioning open system, allowing contact and reciprocal exchanges with social world

hierarchical organization - in families of all cultures, maintained by generational boundaries, rules of differentiating parent/child roles, rights, obligations


group development stages

preaffiliation - forming (development of trust)

power and control - storming (struggles for individual autonomy and group identification)

intimacy - norming (utilize self in service of group)

differentiation - performing (acceptance of each other as distinct individuals)

separation/termination - adjourning (independence)


factors affecting group cohesion (x5)

group size
group homogeneity
participation in goal and norm setting for group
interdependence - depend on one another for achievement and goals
member stability (frequent change --> lack of cohesion)


causes of groupthink (8)

1. illusion of vulnerability - creates excessive optimism that encourages extreme risk-taking

2. collective rationalization - members discount warnings and do not reconsider assumptions

3. belief in inherent morality - members believe in rightness of their cause, ignore ethical/moral consequences of decisions

4. stereotyped views of those "on the out" - negative views of "enemy"

5. direct pressure on dissenters - members put under pressure not to express arguments against group's views

6. self-censorship - doubts and deviations from perceived consensus are not expressed

7. illusion of unanimity - majority view and judgments assumed to be unanimous

8. self-appointed "mindguards" - members protect group and leader from contradictory information


group polarization

discussion strengthens dominant p.o.v., shift to more extreme view than any individual member would adopt alone


trust versus mistrust (Erikson)

birth - 1 yr

learn to trust based on consistency of caregiver

successful - child gains confidence, security (even when threatened)

unsuccessful - inability to trust, sense of fear about inconsistent world, anxiety, heightened insecurity


autonomy versus shame/doubt (Erikson)

1 yr - 3 yrs

children assert independence, walk away from mother, pick toys, make choices (what they like to wear, eat)

successful - encouraged/supported in increased independence --> become confidence/secure in ability to survive

unsuccessful - criticized, overly controlled, not given opportunity to assert themselves --> feel inadequate in ability to survive, may become overly dependent upon others, lack self-esteem, feelings of shame/doubt in abilities


initiative versus guilt (Erikson)

3yrs - 6yrs

children assert themselves more frequently, plan and initiate activities, make up games

successful - develop sense of initiative, feel secure in abilities to lead others, make decisions

unsuccessful - criticism/control --> develop sense of guilt, feel like nuisances, will remain followers, lack self-initiative


industry versus inferiority (Erikson)

6yrs - puberty

develop pride in accomplishments, initiate projects & follow through to completion

successful - encouraged in initiative --> begin to feel industrious, confident in ability to achieve goals

unsuccessful - initiative restricted --> begin to feel inferior, doubting abilities, failing to reach potential


identity versus role confusion (Erikson)


children becoming more independent, begin to look @ future in terms of career, relationships, housing, families, etc.

successful - explore possibilities, begin to form identity based on outcome of exploration

unsuccessful - hindered sense of who they are, confusion about themselves and role in the world


intimacy versus isolation (Erikson)

young adulthood

share selves intimately with others, explore relationships leading towards long-term commitment with others outside family

successful - comfortable relationships with sense of commitment, safety, care

unsuccessful - avoiding intimacy/fear of commitment --> isolation, loneliness, even depression


generativity versus stagnation (Erikson)

middle adulthood

establish careers, settle down with relationships, begin families, develop sense of being part of bigger picture


ego integrity versus despair (Erikson)

older adults, seniors


Mahler - normal autism

0-1 month

infant detached, self-absorbed, spends time sleeping

*Mahler later abandoned this phase