Flashcards in How did the Cold War in Europe develop? 1943-56 Deck (34)
When was the Tehran Conference? What was agreed? What was the point of tension?
- USA and Britain would open second front against Germany, taking pressure off USSR.
- USSR would declare war on Japan when Germany is defeated.
- Poland would be given land from Germany but lose some to the USSR.
- Churchill wanted to invade the Balkans to stop Soviet influence from expanding, but Churchill and Roosevelt opposed this.
When was the Yalta Conference? What was agreed?
- When defeated, Germany would be demilitarised and forced to pay reparations.
- Europe would be rebuilt on democratic principals.
- Nazi Party would be banned and war criminals tried in front of an international court.
- UN would replace League of Nations.
- USSR would declare war on Japan after defeat of Germany.
- Poland would be in the Soviet 'sphere of influence' but would be run on a 'broader democratic basis'
When was the Potsdam Conference? Who attended it?
- Truman, Churchill and Stalin
Why was the personal trust and understanding lost between the three leaders by 1945?
1. Truman replaced Roosevelt as president; Truman had no relationship with Stalin
2. Truman didn't tell Stalin about America's activities with the nuclear bomb, leading to Stalin distrusting him.
What was agreed at the Potsdam Conference?
- Setup Council of Foreign Ministers to organise re-building of Europe.
- Nazi Party banned and all surviving Nazis prosecuted as war criminals.
- Germany's size to be reduced.
- Germany would be divided into four zones, with aim of re-uniting it ASAP.
- Berlin would be divided into four zones, but would be located in USSR's zone.
- USSR's zone was least developed, so quarter of industrial equipment from other three zones would be given to USSR.
Describe the disagreements over Germany's reparations.
- USSR wanted to impose heavy reparations on Germany.
- US doesn't want heavy reparations, want to see Germany rebuilt as strong ally.
- Settle for conference; each ally would take reparations from the zone they occupied.
- But, Stalin's zone much poorer - so Stalin was able to collect a small amount of reparations...
Describe the disagreement over Poland.
Stalin had promised that he would run Poland on a 'broader democratic basis' and maintain free elections. However, he broke his promise by the time of the Potsdam Conference - this angered the US.
Describe the disagreement over Greece.
Monarchists were fighting against communists over the control of Greece. The British supported the Monarchists, turning the crisis into a civil war.
The US also stepped in to prop up the monarchists against the communists.
This angered the uSSR.
In 1946, describe the two telegrams that led to the start of the cold war.
The Long Telegram (1946):
- Stalin calls for destruction of capitalism.
- USSR was building up its military power.
- As a result, US decided it needed to contain communism.
Novikov's Telegram (1946):
- America desired to dominate the world.
- Truman, unlike Roosevelt, wasn't interested in working with the USSR.
- America was preparing for war with the US.
What was the Truman Doctrine?
A new policy set out by President Truman in 1947:
- The world had to choose between communism and democracy.
- America needed to protect liberty and fight against communism.
- America would support governments threatened by communism.
- Communism must be contained.
Why was the Truman Doctrine significant?
It marked an end of America's traditional policy of isolationism and marked the beginning of a more proactive US foreign policy. It showed that the US, rather than just the UN, had a responsibility to protect the world.
What was the Marshall Plan?
- Launched in 1947.
- $13bn used to help rebuild shattered economies of Europe.
- By helping Europe recover, communism becomes less appealing.
What was Cominform?
- Communist Information Bureau
- Setup in 1947
- International organisation that all Communist Parties were a part of.
- Ensured loyalty of all communist leaders to Stalin and the USSR.
- As a result, Eastern European governments REJECT American Marshall aid.
What was Comecon?
- Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
- Setup in 1949
- Communist alternative to Marshall Aid.
- Encouraged economic development of Eastern Europe.
Why was Stalin concerned about the initial division of East and West Germany?
- In 1948, the Western allies setup a German constitution and assembly. They also introduced a new currency.
- This concerned Stalin that the allies wanted a permanently divided Germany.
- He didn't want American troops to be stationed in Germany.
- He saw that the Trizonia section of Germany was much richer and more prosperous than his single zone.
What was the Berlin Blockade? Why was it setup?
- June 1948
- Stalin sets up military blockade around West Berlin to cut off western Germany from its capital.
- He hoped that it would prove that a divided Germany would not work in practice.
How did the America respond to the Berlin Blockade?
- Berlin Airlift
- Allied planes transported supplies to West Berlin around the clock.
- 70 large cargo plans every day
- Huge propaganda success for Americans, making Stalin's tactics look aggressive.
- Blockade ends in May 1949
Describe the creation of the GDR and FRG.
- Allies create Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) in 1949.
- USSR creates German Democratic Republic (GDR) one month later.
- GDR becomes another Soviet satellite state.
Why was the formation of NATO significant?
- North Atlantic Treaty Organisation founded in 1949.
- Alliance between USA and Western Europe.
- It marked the transition from a trading alliance to a formal military alliance.
- They all agreed to defend against communism.
Why was the Warsaw Pact created?
- West Germany had joined NATO; it was too aggressive to ignore.
- Warsaw Pact was the USSR's answer to NATO.
- All of Soviet Union's satellite states were members of the Warsaw Pact.
Describe features of the Arms Race (1945-55).
- 1945, USA develops first atomic bomb.
- 1949, USSR develops its own nuclear bomb.
- 1953, both countries have hydrogen bombs.
- America has more powerful bombs still.
- So, USSR develops its own bomb that is as powerful as American hydrogen bombs.
- 1955, America developed its bombing aircraft. the B52 Stratofortress.
- USSR develops its own aircraft, known as the TU20 Bear.
Why was the Arms Race significant?
- USSR had 3 million troops available to easily invade West Germany.
- But they didn't, because they feared American nuclear retaliation.
- People scared by Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
How was Hungary treated under the rule of Stalin?
- Hungarian land redistributed to other satellite states.
- Hungary's resources and food shipped back to Russia; people were starving.
- Russian officials controlled the government.
- Cominform killed political leaders and supporters.
- Matyas Rakosi was appointed as Hungary's dictator.
Why was Matyas Rakosi known as the 'Bald Butcher'?
- Hungary's dictator.
- He got rid of opposition by dividing it "slice by slice''
- 387,000 people imprisoned, 2,000 killed.
What was De-Stalinisation? Why was it important?
- Stalin dies in 1953
- Khrushchev replaces him
- In his 'Secret Speech' of 1956, he promises an end to Stalinism and the introduction of some liberal reforms throughout the Soviet Union and its satellite states.
Who was Imre Nagy? What was his background?
- Fought in First World War
- Imprisoned by Russians
- Escaped, fought with communists in Russian revolution.
- Nagy becomes Minister of Agriculture in Hungary
- But, he's expelled for his concerns for peasants.
- He is let back into the party and replaces Rakosi as Prime Minister between 1953 and 1955.
- He was thrown out of government again for his opposition to Rakosi.
Why were Hungarians dissatisfied with Soviet Rule?
- They were hopeful for reform after Khrushchev's Secret Speech, but were left disappointed as nothing changed.
- Bad harvests, fuel and bread shortages lead to riots in Budapest in 1956. Fighting broke out between students and police, eventually turning into a conflict that spread across the whole country.
How did Khrushchev respond to the 1956 riots in Budapest?
He appointed Nagy, a more liberal communist, as Prime Minister and withdrew the Red Army from Hungary.
What reforms did Nagy try to introduce?
- Hungary would leave the Warsaw Pact.
- Hungary would old free elections.
- They would be recognised by the UN as a neutral country, making a Soviet invasion unlawful.