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Flashcards in How Birds Sing and Why Deck (17)
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1

What is a syrinx?

The vocal box of birds.

2

What is the critical period for song learning in white-crowned sparrows?

10-50 days.

3

When is the matching phase for white-crowned sparrows?

150-200 days.

4

Do birds need to be able to hear themselves in order to properly learn songs?

Yes.

5

When exposed to living birds of other species' songs, do they learn other species' songs?

Yes, social experience has a strong effect on WC sparrow singing behavior.

6

When did WC sparrows begin to sing? What did they sing?

They start to sing around 150 days; they mimic the songs they heard earlier.

7

If WC sparrows are only exposed to other species' songs, do they learn song?

No.

8

If WC sparrows are exposed to many species, including its own, do they learn song?

They learn normal song.

9

What is cranial nerve 8?

Activates muscles in syrinx.

10

What is the IMAN and area X?

Associated with song learning.

11

What is the RA nucleus?

Associated with song production.

12

What is the HVC?

The higher vocal center. A dense collection of neurons that connects to the RA nucleus.

13

Is a large HVC needed to learn songs?

Yes.

14

When Galas are reared by Pink Cockatoos, how are their calls affected?

They have the normal Glalah begging and alarm calls, but give Pink Cockatoo contact calls.

15

Why does the song system develop in male birds? (3)

1. Cells in embryo produce estrogen. 2. Estrogen travels to the nerve cells in the brain and binds to receptors. 3. Complex neural system (the song system) is then stimulated to develop.

16

What happens to the neural connections for song in the female zebra finches' brain?

The part of the brain (HVC) shrinks through cell death.

17

What do females need to be given in order for them to develop song? (2)

1. Estrogen within 4 days of hatching. 2. Testosterone implants as adults.