hormones and diseases of the digestive system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in hormones and diseases of the digestive system Deck (50)
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1

the major gastro hormones

1.gastrin,
2.enterogastrone,
3.secretin,
4.cholecystokinin pancreozymins,
5.duocrinin
6.enterocrinin
7.vasoactive intestinal peptide
8.somatostatin
9.pancreatic polypeptide
10.villikinin

2

gastrin

from stomach
target stomach
release of gastric juices

3

enterogastrone

gastric inhibitory
from duodenum
target stomach
slows gastric contraction and inhibits its secretions

4

secretin

the first hormone discovered
from duodenum
target pancreas liver and stomach
release bicarbonates in pancreatic juice, release bile and suppress gastric juice

5

cholecystokinin pancreozymins(CCK-PZ)

from small intestine
target gall bladder and pancreas
contracts the gall bladder to release bile
signals the pancreas to release pancreatic juices

6

duocrinin

from duodenum
target duodenum
signals Brunner's glands to secrete mucus

7

enterocrinin

from small intestine
target small intestine
signals crypts of lieberkuhn to secrete intestinal juices

8

vasoactive intestinal peptide

from small intestine
target small intestine and stomach
dilates peripheral blood vessels of the gut
inhibits gastic acid secretion

9

somatostatin(part 1)

from delta cells of islets of Langerhans
target to pancreas and GI tracts
inhibits the secretion of glucagon by alpha cells and insulin by beta cells
inhibits absorption of nutrients from GI tract

10

villikinin

from small intestine
target small intestine
accelerates movements of villi

11

somatostatin(part 2)

from argentaffin cells of gastric and intestinal glands
target GI tract
suppresses the release of hormones from the GI tract

12

pancreatic polypeptide(PP)

from pancreatic polypeptide cells
to pancreas
inhibits the release of pancreatic juice from the pancreas

13

the chief source of energy/metabolic fuels in humans

carbohydrates, proteins and fats
they are oxidised and transformed to ATP,the chemical energy drives the cells

14

whats gross calorific value

amount of heat produced on combustion of 1 g of food

15

the calorific value of carbohydrates, proteins, fats

4.1kcal/g
5.65kcal/g
9.45kcal/g

16

physiological value of food

4kcal/g for proteins and carbohydrates and 9kcal for fats

17

PEM

protein energy malnutrition
deficiency of vitamin,iron and iodine,energy,protein
young children(0-6 years) require more protein than adults

18

two types of PEM

kwashiorkor and marasmus

19

kwashiorkor

protein deficiency
1-5 years age
wasted muscle
thin limbs
regarding growth
water retention in legs
reddish hair,diarrhoea and pot belly

20

marasmus

protein and calorie deficiency
infants below the age of 1
impaired growth and replacement of tissue proteins
thin limbs
prominent limbs
dry thin wrinkled skin
diarrhoea

21

vitamin A(retinol)

carrot,tomato,papaya,mango,milk,eggs,cod liver oil
vision,growth and diff of epithelial tissue
deficiency:night blindness ,xerophthalmia,abnormal epithelial cell growth
first fat soluble vitamin discovered

22

vitamin D(calciferol)

cod liver oil,skin(in the presence of sunlight)
absorption of ca ions from the GI tract and calcium deposition in bones
deficiency: rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults
behaves more like a hormone rather than cofactor of an enzyme

23

vitamin E (tocopherol)

wheat germ, green leafy veggies, fats of vegetable origin
good antioxidant, necessary for the proper functioning of the reproductive organs and muscles, maintaining the structure of RBC
deficiency: reproductive failure

24

vitamin K derivatives

k1(phylloquinone)
k2 (menaquinone)
k3 (menadione)-synthetic

25

vitamin k

leafy vegetables, wheat germ, bacteria of large intestine
helps in blood clotting
deficiency: excessive bleeding

interesting fact: meliotus indica (fodder and green manure ) contains a green substance called dicumarol that prevents the action of vit k

26

fat soluble vitamins

a,k,d,e

27

water soluble vitamins

b,c

28

vitamin B1 (thiamine)

whole grain,wheat germ,legumes,nuts,fish
essential for growth and repair of tissues
deficiency:beri-beri
in alcoholics it causes the disease Wernicke's syndrome and korsakoffs's syndrome , as alcohol interferes with B1 metabolism in liver

29

vitamin B2(riboflavin)

aka yellow enzyme
milk cheese meat eggs legumes wheat germ mushrooms green leafy veg
helps RBC production and acts as FAD(in ETC and TCA cycle) and as FMN( in ETC)
deficiency:cheliosis

30

vitamin B3(niacin)

whole grain nuts,legumes,fish,meat poultry,liver ,yeast
nad and nadp in TCA cycle
deficiency: pellagra