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Midwifery y1 Anatomy and Physiology > Hormones > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hormones Deck (23)
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1

Produced in hypothalamus (and heart, blood vessels etc). Stimulate contractions, milk ejection etc). Also a neuro transmitter: promotes bonding, endorphins, socialising (tend and befriend/rest and digest). Love Hormone. One of four main labour hormones.

OXYTOCIN

2

Produced in hypothalamus, controls fluid retention and blood pressure. Also a neurotransmitter: promotes aggression, self defence (fight flight freeze).

VASOPRESSIN (ADH)

3

Produced in the Thyroid. Regulated by the Hypothalamus-pituitary gland axis. Controls metabolic rate, use of lipids/glucose.

T3 & T4

4

Produced in the Thyroid. Decrease calcium levels in the blood. Promotes calcification.

CALCITONIN

5

Produced in the Parathyroid glands. Increases calcium levels in the blood. Trigger Vitamin D production, increasing absorption of calcium from food in the small intestine

PARATHYROID HORMONE

6

Produced in the adrenal cortex. Regulated by the Hypothalamus-pituitary gland axis. Controls BP and blood volume (together with Renin and Angiotensin)

ALDOSTERONE

7

Produced in the adrenal cortex. Regulated by the Hypothalamus-pituitary gland axis. Increase levels of calcium in the blood, levels of glucose produced in the liver and available to the cells, ups BP.

CORTISOL

8

Produced in the adrenal cortex. Regulated by the Hypothalamus-pituitary gland axis. Increase libido. In men stimulates growth of prostate, muscle, hair.

ANDROGENS

9

Produced in the adrenal medulla. Controlled by the Nervous system. Stimulates release of Cortisol. Increase HR, heart output, BP. Relaxes smooth muscle in airways, directs blood to essential organs. Works on alpha and beta receptors, heart, lungs, arteries. Stress hormone. One of four main labour hormones.

ADRENALINE

10

Produced in the adrenal medulla. Controlled by the Nervous system. Stimulates release of Cortisol. Increase HR, cardiac output, BP. Relaxes smooth muscle in airways, directs blood to essential organs. Works on beta receptors only, arteries. Stress hormone.

NORADRENALINE

11

Produced in the Pancreas, by beta cells. Regulated by environmental factors. Decrease glucose in the blood through allowing entry to cells where it is used as fuel.

INSULIN

12

Produced in the Pancreas, by alpha cells. Regulated by environmental factors. Increases glucose in blood. Induces glycolysis, production of glucose in the liver.

GLUCAGON

13

Produced in the Pancreas, by delta cells and in the brain. Regulated by environmental factors. Blocks Insulin, Glucagon, Growth hormone but not Cortisol. Also a neuro transmitter: slows down the digestive system. During stress, this hormone makes sure that glucose levels are regulated by the adrenal glands.

SOMATOSTATIN

14

Produced by the Pituitary gland after release of gonadotropin (GnRH) from Hypothalamus, acting on the Ovaries. Stimulates ovulation.

LEUTENIZING HORMONE (LH)

15

Produced by the Pituitary gland after release of gonadotropin (GnRH) from Hypothalamus, acting on the Ovaries. Stimulates follicles to grow.

FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH)

16

Produced by the Ovaries (follicles and the corpus luteum) and the Placenta. Acts on endometrium and duct cells in breasts. Increases blood flow and growth of blood vessels. Increases metabolic rate (Thyroid) and cortisol production (stimulates growth). In nervous system has a anti-depressant effect.

OESTROGEN

17

Produced by the Ovaries (corpus Luteum) and the Placenta. Acts on endometrium and on the mammary glands. Increased levels ups body temp, higher fluid retention leading to high plasma level in blood (potential relative anaemia). Supresses immune system. Relaxes smooth muscle. In nervous system leads to sedation and relaxation. Respiratory stimulant and increases the
sensitivity of the peripheral and central chemoreceptors for
carbon dioxide during pregnancy.

PROGESTERONE

18

Produced by the Ovaries and Placenta. NOT regulated by the Hypothalamus-pituitary gland axis. Relaxes smooth muscle, relaxing the uterus, loosening the pelvis and softening the cervix. Creates vasodilation.

RELAXIN

19

Produced by the pituitary gland (on nipple stimulation), placenta and in the breasts. Responsible for milk production, stimulates alveoli growth. Blocks fertility. One of four main labour hormones.

PROLACTIN

20

Produced by the placenta. Pregnancy hormone, in blood 8 days after fertilisation. Stimulates growth of blood vessels in endometrium/decidua. Hinders immune system but increases metabolic rate. Responsible for vomiting and nausea.

HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHINE (hCG)

21

Produced by the placenta. Stimulate metabolism, increasing growth in both maternal and fetal tissues, increases the level of glucose in the blood (could result in diabetes). Stimulates growth of breast tissues.

HUMAN PLACENTAL LACTOGEN (hPL)

22

Produced in Pituitary gland. Naturally occurring opiate, feeling of pleasure, euphoria and pleasure. Released following pain and duress, acts as analgesics. Supresses immune system. One of four main labour hormones.

ENDORPHINES

23

Which are the four main hormones during labour?

Endorphins, Adrenaline, Prolactin, Oxytocin.