hooks Flashcards Preview

IST Exam > hooks > Flashcards

Flashcards in hooks Deck (41)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the hooks exam question?

How does bell hooks integrate her theories of feminism and race?

2

What is the Structure of the bell hooks Question?

Introduction
Build up on second wave
Build on third wave - everybody needs feminism
Slavery, rape and feminism
Feminist theory in media, and race representations
Buildup on postmodernism
Conclusion

3

What is the Introduction of the hooks exam question?

bell hooks was born in 1952 and grew up in the times of a segregated America. Born Gloria Jean Watkins, she was taught originally by teachers of colour, but then transferred to a segregated school that wouldn’t even allow her to go on the school bus due to her race. Getting into Stanford University was when she began to look into feminist theory.

Nowadays, she is seen as a prominent figure in feminism, especially in the movement of intersectional feminism.

However, this hasn’t come to her flawlessly. This essay will look at bell hooks, and her work into feminism; showing that although she was inclusive of some oppressed groups, she wasn’t inclusive of all.

4

What is the Structure of the bell hooks introduction?

Birth
How she greup
Influence
This essay will...

5

How was bell hooks born (Intro, BH)?

bell hooks was born Gloria Jean Watkins in 1952 and grew up in the times of a segregated America.

6

How did bell hooks grow up education wise (Intro, BH)?

She was taught originally by teachers of colour, but then transferred to a segregated school that wouldn’t even allow her to go on the school bus due to her race. Getting into Stanford University was when she began to look into feminist theory.

7

What is hooks' Impact (Intro, BH)?

Nowadays, she is seen as a prominent figure in feminism, especially in the movement of intersectional feminism. This essay will look at how she did it.

8

How did bell hooks link build on the second wave of feminism?

In 1984, bell hooks criticised the second wave of feminism in her book ‘Feminist Theory: from margin to center’. The second wave advocated women to work towards making “careers, higher education [and] political rights” (Friedan, 1963) seem feminine. Betty Friedan, a leader of the movement, acknowledged that women at the time were expected to “devote their lives… to finding a husband and bearing children” (Friedan, 1963). This made housewives bored and unhappy and limited potential. Hooks however criticised the work of Friedan and similar feminists, arguing the issues they raised only applied to middle class white women. Their described oppression did not cater to the ‘masses’, who also had difficulties with “economic survival” and “ethnic and racial discrimination” (hooks, 1984). Instead, hooks argued that race, gender and class should all be looked at simultaneously, so all aspects of social oppression were acknowledged. This view was later coined as ‘intersectionality’, which is now at the heart of feminism. The 3rd wave of feminism developed on this term, also extending oppression for those disabled, and homosexual. Many forms of identity, however, comes with difficulty to keep a sense of unity as women, whilst celebrating the diversity of identity. And in feminist politics it is harder to develop policies which cater to all females in society. This ultimately shows that while hooks’ work has allowed more awareness of the oppression suffered in different women, it has come at the expense of a loss of solidarity.

9

In what work did hooks criticise the 2nd wave of feminism (2, BH)?

In 1984, bell hooks criticised the second wave of feminism in her book ‘Feminist Theory: from margin to center’.

10

What did the second wave of feminism advocate towards (2, bh)

The second wave advocated women to work towards making “careers, higher education [and] political rights” (Friedan, 1963) seem feminine.

11

What did Friedan write abut the 2nd wave of feminism (2, bh)?

Betty Friedan, a leader of the movement, acknowledged that women at the time were expected to “devote their lives… to finding a husband and bearing children” (Friedan, 1963).

This made housewives bored and unhappy and limited potential.

12

Why did hooks criticise second wave feminists like Friedan (2, bh)?

Hooks however criticised the work of Friedan and similar feminists, arguing the issues they raised only applied to middle class white women. Their described oppression did not cater to the ‘masses’, who also had difficulties with “economic survival” and “ethnic and racial discrimination” (hooks, 1984).

13

What did hooks argue for (2, bh)?

Instead, hooks argued that race, gender and class should all be looked at simultaneously, so all aspects of social oppression were acknowledged.

14

What was the impact of hooks' argument (2, bh)?

This view was later coined as ‘intersectionality’, which is now at the heart of feminism. The 3rd wave of feminism developed on this term, also extending oppression for those disabled, and homosexual.

15

What was the issue of intersectionality (2, bh)?

Many forms of identity, however, comes with difficulty to keep a sense of unity as women, whilst celebrating the diversity of identity. And in feminist politics it is harder to develop policies which cater to all females in society. This ultimately shows that while hooks’ work has allowed more awareness of the oppression suffered in different women, it has come at the expense of a loss of solidarity.

16

What is the structure of the second wave paragraph?

hooks work
Friedan's argument
hooks' argument
Impact - intersectionality
Issue - loss of solidarity

17

How did hooks look at black women in the book aint i a woman?

hooks’ 1981 book ‘Ain’t I A Woman?’ looks at the discrimination of black women in society. She recognised that “No other group in America has so had their identity socialized out of existence as have black women” (hooks, 1981) due to them falling victim to both sexist and racist discrimination. Black Nationalism would still lead to a hierarchy with black women at the bottom, so hooks states that it is important for black women to keep with feminism, yet still openly criticise the movement. Her points raised ended up having a massive positive impact on women of colour. It made feminists aware of the oppressive undertones of the movement meant to support all women. Hooks’ work helped keep black women believing in feminism, and helped them develop a critical eye to what they see around them. This ultimately made feminism more accepting and inclusive.

18

In what work did hooks bring up the true discrimination of black women (bw, bh)?

hooks’ 1981 book ‘Ain’t I A Woman?’ looks at the discrimination of black women in society.

19

How did hooks bring up the true discrimination of black women (bw, bh)?

. She recognised that “No other group in America has so had their identity socialized out of existence as have black women” (hooks, 1981) due to them falling victim to both sexist and racist discrimination.

20

What did hooks say black women should do with the second wave of feminism (bw, bh)?

Black Nationalism would still lead to a hierarchy with black women at the bottom, so hooks states that it is important for black women to keep with feminism, yet still openly criticise the movement.

21

What was the impact of hooks' argument (bw, bh)?

Her points raised ended up having a massive positive impact on women of colour. It made feminists aware of the oppressive undertones of the movement meant to support all women. Hooks’ work helped keep black women believing in feminism, and helped them develop a critical eye to what they see around them. This ultimately made feminism more accepting and inclusive.

22

How did hooks look at slavery and rape in the book aint i a woman?

This being said, in the book hooks mentions that black women were seen as a threat to both racial and sexual imperialism, and stereotyping dating back from slavery. This made them subject to a lot of abuse, ranging from psychological to sexual. She talked a lot about the sensitive topic of sexual abuse, and how the sexual exploitation of women was not discussed in accuracy, out of “for fear of offending audiences, so they concentrated on the theme of prostitution.” (hooks, 1981).
This led to the succession of such sexism and oppression in other countries such as those in the Middle East - for example Saudi Arabia allowing women to drve

23

Why did black women receive such abuse (rape, bh)?

This being said, in the book hooks mentions that black women were seen as a threat to both racial and sexual imperialism, and stereotyping dating back from slavery. This made them subject to a lot of abuse, ranging from psychological to sexual.

24

Why did hooks' say black women's issues were not discussed (rape, bh)?

She talked a lot about the sensitive topic of sexual abuse, and how the sexual exploitation of women was not discussed in accuracy, out of “for fear of offending audiences, so they concentrated on the theme of prostitution.” (hooks, 1981).

25

What impact did this work have (rape, bh)?

This led to the succession of such sexism and oppression in other countries such as those in the Middle East - for example Saudi Arabia allowing women to drive

26

how does hooks build on cultural criticisms?

bell hooks argues that the media has high influence on the perceptions of others. Feminist film theory argues that women in society were unhappy housewives, but in the media women were women with “spirit, courage [and] independence” (Friedan, 1963), but fails to acknowledge the representation of black women in specific. The book ‘Race and Representations’ says in early cinema/TV, Black women were an ‘absent presence’ in the background, almost unseen. Whereas the women to be looked at and desired was white. An example of this is in Gone with the Wind, where the black female in the movie was a maid named Mammy, who was always in the background and unseen. Hooks also looks at the stereotypical representation of black women in the media, separating it into categories including: ‘Mammy’, ‘The Matriarch’ and ‘Sapphire’, the angry back girl. The ‘Sexual Savage’ is wildly promiscuous, stemming from “appropriating the wild woman pornographic myth of black female sexuality created by men in a white supremacist patriarchy” (hooks, 1992). Her book has raised awareness for stereotypes of black women, and how depiction of black women in real life has stemmed from the way white men have made them look in the media. However, she fails to take into account the fact that even though she was a black maid, actress Hattie McDaniel won an Academy Award for her role as Mammy, meaning she was seen as better than the other nominees by the voting board. Also, many black female roles go against the 4 she depicted, for example Liz McIntyre in the show ‘Room 222’ was a kind-hearted guidance counsellor, and the love interest of Pete Dixon; and Lieutenant Uhura from ‘Star Trek’ who was one of the first African non-menial roles on American TV (Michae’l, 2015). This shows that hooks’ work on cultural criticism is not fully accurate. hooks talks about Beyoncé in her 2014 Time Magazine cover: and how she fit the role of the ‘Sexual Savage’, also wearing long blonde hair, a Eurocentric feature. However, it could be argued that hooks isn’t looking at the whole picture, and how Beyoncé is a grown woman capable of making choices for herself. She could in fact be representing strong female empowerment and sexual empowerment. This would suggest that hooks has a limited biased view on black women in the media, thus not being able to provide a clear view on cultural criticism.

27

What does hooks argue about the media (cc, bh)?

bell hooks argues that the media has high influence on the perceptions of others.

28

What does feminist film theory argue (cc, bh)?

Feminist film theory argues that women in society were unhappy housewives, but in the media women were women with “spirit, courage [and] independence” (Friedan, 1963)

29

What does feminist film theory fail to do (cc, bh)?

It fails to acknowledge the representation of black women in specific.

30

In what work does hooks talk about cultural criticisms (cc, bh)?

The book ‘Race and Representations’