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Flashcards in History of Cartography Deck (6)
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Middle ages

Fall of the Roman Empire(5th Century A.D.)
Scientific was thought rejected in favor of religion
All maps drawn and illuminated by hands so distribution extremely limited
Viking exploration in the North Atlantic: incorporated into the world view beginning in 12th century
Portolan maps share the characteristic rhumbline networks which emanate out from compass roses located at various points (windrose lines)


T-O Map

Medieval world map
"Orbis Terrarum" - Orb or circle of the lands, with the letter T inside an O.


Early Mapping

Sumerian Clay Tablets-5000 and 2500 B.C. : illustrates military operations
Babylonian Civilzation (2000 B.C.): military, route, and cadastral maps
Egypt- cadastral plans and surveying methods important for taxation
Phoenicians- developed maps to support shipping operations


Renaissance (14th-17th Century)

Cartography flourish again
Gutenberg Printing Press- 1450
Age of exploration(15-16th): Henry the Nav., Columbus, Cabral, Cabot, Magellan.
Maps important for economic, military, and diplomatic purposes 1492-one of earliest globes


Modern Mapping(17th)

17th-20th century  maps become more accurate and factual
Application of scientific methods
Initiation of national mapping programs
Cesar Francois Cassini’s map of France, 1744
Ordnance Survey of Great Britain, national survey in 1801
US Geological Survey, founded in 1879
Social cartography and thematic mapping
Modern cartography is based on a combination of ground observations (e.g., triangulation) and remote sensing


Information ages

GIS  computer-based system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data.
Remote sensing  deriving information about the Earth’s surface from images acquired at a distance.
GPS  worldwide navigation system using a constellation of 24 satellites and their ground stations or receivers.
Science and Measurement – progressively better methods to measure Earth size and shape, and location of features.
Themes – shift from reference maps to thematic maps (place to space); soils, climate, vegetation, etc.
GIS – thematic “layers” of data, weighting, queries, indices (e.g., suitability and trafficability).