Histology of Mammary Gland and Placenta Flashcards Preview

SF3-EXAM 4 (CAMELITA) > Histology of Mammary Gland and Placenta > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histology of Mammary Gland and Placenta Deck (29)
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Umbilical

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Placenta (First trimester)

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Mammary Alveoli

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The placenta erodes into both the _________ and ______.

Endometrial glands; spiral arteries

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What are the stages of placenta development?

  • 7 1/2 day implanting blastocyst
  • 9 day implanted blastocyst
  • 16 day embryo

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Function of chorionic villi?

Chorionic villi are villi that sprout from the chorion in order to give a maximum area of contact with the maternal blood

NOTE: Chorionic villi penetrate into endometrium

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Characteristics of placenta in first trimester

  • Chorionic villi are large and covered by two layers of cells- cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast
  • Blood vessels are not prominent

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Characteristics of placenta in second trimester

  • The villi becomes smaller
  • More vascular
  • Syncytiotrophoblast cell layer draws up into "syncytial knots" which are small clusters of cells, leaving a single cytotrophoblast layer

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Characteristics of placenta in third trimester

  • Branches of the umbilical vessels grow into the mesoderm
    • In this way, the chorionic villi are vascularized to support the blood glas and nutrient exchange of maternal-fetal circulation
  • Syncytial knots and intervillous fibrin are prominent

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Which hormones are synthesizes by the placenta?

  • hCG
  • Somatommammotropin
  • Progesterone

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The syncytiotrophoblast is permeable to:

  • Ions
  • Nutrients
  • Maternal IgG
  • Some drugs

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Which drugs have the highest fetal/maternal ratio?

Ketamine (1.26)

*This is an intravenous anesthetic

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Which drugs have the lowest fetal/maternal ratio?

Lidocaine (0.5)

*This is a local anesthetic

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Cause of pre-eclampsia

Elevated blood levels of a protein (sFIt-1) that binds growth factors required for normal placental growth

NOTE: Pre-eclampsia is a result of poor placental invasiveness and poor vascularization. 

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Components of milk secreted by mammary glands

  • Lactose (Golgi)
  • Protein (RER)
    • Casein
    • Lactoferrin
    • IgA
  • Lipid (cytosol)
    • Triglycerides and cholesterol
  • Antibodies (plasma cells)
  • Ions

NOTE: Mammary glands contain 16-20 lobules

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Stages in the functional anatomy of the mammary gland

  • Nonpregnant
    • Inactive duct system
  • During pregnancy
    • Alveoli proliferate at the ends of the ducts
  • Lactating
    • Milk secretion and accumulation in alveolar lumen

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Differentiate between inactive and active mammary glands

In active:

  • Amount of glandular tissues increases
    • Involves both the epithelial and myoepithelial cells
    • Proliferation of these cells leads to the formation of secretory alveoli
  • Connective tissue decreases
  • Increased cellularity of intralobular connective tissue
  • Intralobular ducts have proliferated to form additional secretory regions

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Characteristics of inactive mammary gland

  • Abundant connective tissue
  • Sparser glandular componnent consists largely of ducts
  • Ducts are surrounded by loose connective tissue containing lymphocytes, plasma cells and fibroblasts
  • Beyond a lobule is the connective tissue is more dense
  • The dense connective tissue contains aggregates of adipocytes

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Which type of epithelium line the laciferous ducts?

Stratified squamous epithelium

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Which type of epithelium line the laciferous sinus?

Stratified cuboidal epithelium

*The remainder of the duct system is lined by a single layer of columnar or cuboidal cells

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Myoepithelial cells are of _________ origin.

Ectodermal

NOTE: Myoepithelial cells lie within the epithelium between the surface epithelial cells and the basal lamina. They are present in the ductal and secretory portion of the gland

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Inactive vs Proliferating vs Lactating Histology

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Milk secretion depends on the action of which two epithelial cell types?

Myoepithelial cell

  • Contract to aid in the ejection of milk

Luminal Epithelial cell

  • Secrete the milk into the ductal lumen

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What are the methods of milk secretion?

Mecrocrine

  • Secretory vesicles coalesce with the membrane on the apical surface to release the product
  • Protein component

Apocrine

  • Lipid droplets pass to the apical region of the cell
  • Droplets are invested with an envelope of plasma membrane and a thin layer of cytoplasm as they are released into the lumen of the acini
  • Lipid component