Female external genitalia
Internal female genitalia
Components of premordial foliicles
- An oocyte surrounded by a single layer of follicular cells
NOTE: Every 28 days the pituitary hormones FSH and LH stimulate the growth of many follicles and maturation of one oocyte within the follicle called the ovarian cycle
Germinal epithelium of Waldeyer
The ovarian surface epithelium, which is a layer of simple squamous-to-cuboidal epithelial cells covering the ovary.
NOTE: The germinal epithelium does NOT give rise to primary follicles
Primordial ovarian follicle
Oocyte-stromal cell constract that is halted at the first meiotic prophase
NOTE: A few primordial follicles are selected to mature into larger, primary follicles
Secondary follicles are larger and possess a fluid-filled cavity called an ______.
What is the function of the theca interna?
Secretes adrogens which are converted by the granulosa layer into estogens.
The inner most layer of the cumulus oophorus is the ___________.
NOTE: The cumulus oophorous is a cluster of cells that surround the oocyte both in the ovarian follicle and after ovulation. This layer of cells must be penetrated by spermatozoa in order for fertilization to occur
What is the main purpose of the corona radiata?
Supply vital proteins to the cell
Follicular fluid is rich in ___________.
Some LH-RH containing neurons possess an a-type estrogen receptor that _________ (suppresses/stimulates) their function. Some LH-RH containing neurons possess an b-type estrogen receptor that __________ (suppresses/stimulates) their function
Connections between granulosa cells weaken under the influence of ____________, which causes the follicle to rupture.
The first meiotic division is completed at ovulation with formation of the first polar body. The oocyte is then called a ____________.
Prior to ovulation, oocytes are arrested at prophase of meoisis I, why?
Due to inhibitory influences of the granulosa cells
NOTE: Activation of an oocyte receptor called GPR3 by an unknown signal increases oocyte cAMP and causes suppression of meiosis
Metaphase of Meiosis I
Ovulatory surges in ______ and _____ change the signaling between the oocyte and the granulosa cell.
How are polar bodies formed?
Results from an Unequal Division of the Oocyte Cytoplasm
What are the components of the zona pellucida?
3 proteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3) produced by the oocyte
NOTE: The zona pellucida forms a barrier aroung the oocyte. It is penetrated by thin processes of granulosa cells.
_________ release enzymes that alter the zona pellucida, causing it to become impermeable to other sperm.
NOTE: Fertilization triggers the migration of cortical granules towards the oocyte plasma membrane. Fertilization also stimulates the onset of meiosis II
Estrogen and progesterone from the ovary target the ___________ of the uterus.
NOTE: This causes it to grow and secrete uterine milk into the uterine lumen.