Histology of Endocrine Glands Flashcards Preview

SF3-EXAM 4 (CAMELITA) > Histology of Endocrine Glands > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histology of Endocrine Glands Deck (47)
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1

What are the physical properties of exocrine glands?

  • Maintain continuity with surface e[ithelium,
  • Have polarized cells with polarized secretions
  • Lots of RER

2

What are the physical properties of endocrine glands?

  • Lose contact with surface epithelium
  • Non-polarized cells with non-polarized secretion​​
  • Little RER

NOTE: The thyroid gland is one exception to this rule

3

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4

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5

Compare and contrast exocrine cell, peptide-secreting endocrine cells, and steriod- secreting endocrine cells.

Exocrine cell

  • Secretion granules
  • Golgi
  • Nucleus
  • Lots of RER
  • basal lamina

Peptide-secreting endocrine cell

  • Small secretions
  • Capillaries
  • Little RER

Steroid -secreting endocrine cell

  • Stored lipid (non secretion granules_
  • SER
  • Capillaries
  • Little RER

6

Location of the major endocrine glands of the body

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9

Thyroid Follicle

10

How do warmth and cold regulate TSH secretion?

  • Cold acts on the hypothalamus stimulating the release of TRF.
  • TRF stimulates the anterior pituatary to release TSH
  • TSH stimulates the thyroid to release free T3 and T4, causing you to feel warmth
    • T3 and T4 then send negative feeback signals to the anterior pituatary and the hypothalamus to inhibit release of those hormones

11

What causes the eye to protrude in patient's with Grave's disease?

Edema behind the eye

NOTE: Grave's disease is characteristic of hypersecretion of thyroid hormones

12

Why is low iodine associated with goiters?

If you don't get enough iodine the thyroid gland will continously make thyroglobulin and will secrete that into the extracellular space but it will never make the complet hormone because of the lack of iodine. When the gland gets larger you get a goiter.

13

How do you distinguish between parafollicular cells (C cells) and follicle cells?

  • C cells are larger and more lightly stained than follicle cells.
  • C cells don't touch  the lumen

14

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15

Function of Calcitonin

  • Reduces level of blood calcium
  • Inhibits oseoclastic activity

16

Where is the parathyroid gland located?

Dorsal to the thyroid gland

17

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19

What are the effects of PTH?

  • Raises blood calcium levels
  • Increased reabsorption of calcium in proximal convuluted tubules
  • Stimulates osteoclastic activity
  • Increased absorption of calcium from GI tract when calcium is present in the diet.

NOTE: PTH is secreted by the principal (chief) cells of parathyroid gland

20

The adrenal cortex is derived from ___________ and secretes __________. The adrenal medulla is derived from __________ and secretes _____________.

Mesoderm; steroid hormones

Neural crest; catecholamines

21

What are the three distinct layers of the adrenal cortex?

  • Zona Glomerulosa
  • Zona Fasciculata
  • Zona Reticularis

22

Zona Glomerulosa (Images)

23

Zona Fasciculata  (Images)

24

The cells of the zona fasciculata are termed _______.

Spongiocytes

NOTE: Lipid-filled cells are arranged in long rows between fenestrated capillaries.

25

What at the components of the lipid droplets found in spongiocytes?

  • sER
  • Cholesterol
  • Mitochondria filled with tubular cristae
  • Lipofusin

26

The zona reticularis (image)

27

Adrenal Medulla: The Chromaffin Reaction

28

Junction between Adrenal Medulla and Cortex

29

Islet of Langerhans

30

Cells of the islet of langerhan. What hormones are secreted by each?

  • Alpha- Glucagon
  • Beta- Insulin
  • Delta- Somatostatin
  • F Cells- Pancreatic polypeptide