Hepatobiliary Pathology Flashcards Preview

07. Year 2: Alimentary System > Hepatobiliary Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hepatobiliary Pathology Deck (56)
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1

What are examples of pathologies of the liver?

Liver failure

Jaundice

Intrahepatic bile duct obstruction

Cirrhosis

Tumours

2

What is pathology of the gallbladder usually?

Inflammation

3

What is pathology of the extrahepatic bile ducts normally?

Obstruction

4

What 2 broad categories is liver failure a complication of?

Acute liver injury

Chronic liver disease (such as cirrhosis)

5

What are examples of acute liver injury?

Hepatitis

Bile duct obstruction

6

What can cause hepatitis which causes acute liver injury?

Viruses such as hep A, B, C, E, other viruses

Alcohol

Drugs

7

What is the pathology of virus hepatitis?

Inflammation of the liver

Liver cell damage and death of the individual liver cells

8

What are the possible outcomes of acute liver injury?

Resolution (liver function returns to normal)

Liver failure (if severe damage to the liver)

Progression to chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis

 

9

What hepatitis viruses can cause acute liver injury but then lead to resolution?

Hepatitis A and E

10

What hepatitis can cause acute liver injury and lead to liver failuer?

Hepatitis A, B and E

11

What hepatitis can cause acute liver injury and lead to chronic hepatitis?

Hepatitis B and C

12

What is alcohol liver disease?

Result of consuming too much alcohol, leading to build up of inflammation, fat and scar tissue

13

What is the pathology of alcoholic hepatitis?

Acute inflammation

Liver cell death

Liver failure

Progress to cirrhosis

14

What is alcoholic hepatitis?

Inflammation of the liver caused by drinking to much alcohol

15

What is jaundice caused by?

Increased circulating bilirubin due to altered metabolism of bilirubin

16

What are the 3 broad areas of the body involved in bilirubin metabolism?

Pre-hepatic

Hepatic

Post-hepatic

17

Explain the pathway of bilirubin metabolism?

1) Breakdown of haemoglibin in spleen to form haem and globin (prehepatic)

2) Haem converted to bilirubin (prehepatic)

3) Release of bilirubin into circulation (prehepatic)

4) Uptake of bilirubin by hepatocytes (hepatic)

5) Conjugation of bilirubin in hepatocytes (hepatic)

6) Excretion of conjugated bilirubin into biliary system (hepatic)

7) Transport of conjugated bilirubin in biliary system (posthepatic)

8) Breakdown of bilirubin conjugate in intestine (posthepatic)

9) Reabsorption of bilirubin (posthepatic)

18

What are the 3 broad categories of causes of jaundice?

Pre-hepatic

Hepatic

Post-hepatic

19

What are pre-hepatic causes of jaundice?

Increased release of haemoglobin from red cells (haemolysis)

20

What is the rupture or destruction of red blood cells called?

Haemolysis

21

What are some causes of cholestasis?

Viral hepatitis

Alcoholic hepatitis

Liver failure

Drugs (therpeutical, recreation, can be predictable so dose related or unpredictable so not dose related)

22

What are some 

23

What are hepatic causes of jaundice?

Cholestasis

Intra-hepatic bile duct obstruction

24

What is cholestasis?

Accumulation of bile within hepatocytes or bile canaliculi

25

What are causes of intra-hepatic bile duct obstruction?

Primary biliary cholangitis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis

Tumours of the liver

26

What kind of condition is primary biliary cholangitis?

Autoimmune disease

27

How does the incidence of primary biliary cholangitis change between males and females?

Affects males to females 1:9 ratio

28

What is the pathology of primary biliary cholangitis?

Granulomatous inflammation involving bile ducts

Loss of intra-hepatic bile ducts

Progression to cirrhosis

29

What does PBC (primary biliary cholangitis) change in the blood?

Raises serum alkaline phosphatase

30

What does PBC stand for?

Primary biliary cholangitis