Hepato-Biliary Surgery Flashcards Preview

07. Year 2: Alimentary System > Hepato-Biliary Surgery > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hepato-Biliary Surgery Deck (55)
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1

What are the functions of the gallbladder?

Bile reservoir

Concentrates bile

Secretes after meal (CKK)

2

What can be said about the anatomy of the gallbladder from person to person?

Anatomical variations exist

3

What can be said about the anatomy of the blood supply to the gallbladder?

Anatomical variations exist

4

What are some examples of conditions of the gallbladder?

Gallstone disease

Cholesterosis

Gallbladder

5

What is the procedure where the gallbladder is removed called?

Cholecystectomies

6

What is the composition of gallstones?

Mixed (>50% cholesterol), 80%

Cholesterol 10%

Pigment 10%

7

What are risk factors for gallstones?

Age

Gender

Parity + oral contraceptives (OCP)

Cholesterol

Pigment (haemolytic anaemia, bile infection)

8

What are risk factors for high cholesterol?

Obesity

Ileal disease

Cirrhosis

Cystic fibrosis

DM

TPN

Heart transplant

9

What is the presentation of gallstones?

Asymptomatic

Dyspeptic symptoms

Biliary colic

Acute cholecystitis

Empyema

Perforation

Jaundice

Gallstone ileus

10

What is inflammation of the gallbladder?

Cholecystitis

11

What is the presence of a small gallstone in the comment bile duct?

Choledocholthiasis

12

What is the presentation of choledocholithiasis?

Post-cholecystectomy pain

Obstructive jaundice (painful)

Dark urine

Pale stool

Steatorrhoea

13

What investigations are done for gallstones?

Blood tests (LFTs, amylase, lipase, WCC)

USS

EUS

Oral cholecystography

CT scan

14

What are the two broad categories of gallstone management?

Non-operative treatment

Operative treatment

15

What is the non-operative management for gallstones?

Dissolution

Lithotripsy

16

What is a treatment that uses shock waves to treat gallstones?

Lithotripsy

17

What is the operative management of gallstones?

Open cholecystectomy

Mini-cholecystectomy

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Singl eport cholecystectomy

Cholecystectomy

Subtotal cholecystectomy

18

What does CBD stand for?

Common bile duct

19

What does the management of common bile duct stones involve?

Expectant treatment (incidental)

Lap trans-cystic, lap or open exploration of CBD

ERCP

Transhepatic stone retrieval

20

What procedure allows examination of the CBD or pancreatic duct using an endoscopy through the mouth?

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

21

What are benign biliary tract diseases?

Diseases that affect the bile ducts, gallbladder and other structures involved in the production and transportation of bile

22

What are examples of benign biliary tract diseases?

Biliary atresia

Choledochal cysts

23

What kind of diseases are benign biliary tract diseases?

Congenital

24

What is biliary atresia?

Narrowing, blockage or absent bile ducts

25

What are choledochal cysts?

Cystic dilations of the biliary tree

26

What is a cyst?

Membraneous sac or cavity of abnormal character in the body containing fluid

27

What are the different categories of biliary atresia?

Iatrogenic

Gallstone related

Inflammatory

28

What are examples of inflammatory causes of biliary atresia?

Pyogenic

Parasitic

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)

Pancreatitis

HIV

29

What are the different types of choledochal cysts?

30

What are examples of malignant tumours that can cause jaundice?

Cholangiocarcinoma

Cancer of the head of the pancreas