Flashcards in Hematology Test 1: Chapters 16, 17, 20, 35, 36 Deck (43)
A malignant disease of hematopoietic tissue, characterized by replacement of normal bone marrow elements with abnormal (neoplastic) blood cells.
This type of leukemia is rapidly progressive and is characterized by an abnormal expansion of immature cells or blasts.
Chronic or Acute:
-Occurs in all ages
-Sudden clinical onset
-less than 6 months if untreated
-immature leukemic cells
-mild to severe anemia
- mild to severe thrombocytopenia
- variable WBC count
Chronic or Acute:
-Tends to occur more in Adults
-Insidious clinical onset
-2-6 years if untreated
-Mature leukemic cells
-Increased WBC count
What are the 4 MAJOR types of leukemia?
-Acute myeloid leukemia
-Chronic myeloid leukemia
-Acute lymphocytic (lymphoblastic) leukemia
-Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
What is the current ratio of adults to children for incidence with leukemia?
What leukemia is the most common form in children?
Acute lymphoblastic (lymphocytic) leukemia
What leukemia is the most common form in adults?
Acute myeloid leukemia
What are other names for AML?
-AML- acute myelogenous leukemia
-ANLL- acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia
-AMoL- acute monocytic leukemia
-AMMoL- acute myelomonocytic leukemia
What are the 3 types of lymphoid leukemias?
ALL- acute lymphocytic leukemia
CLL- chronic lymphocytic leukemia
HCL- hairy cell leukemia
What are the 2 major types of classifications for leukemias?
FAB- The French-American-British classification
WHO- World Health Organization
FAB classifies based on what?
Morphology, BM M:E ratio, and cytochemistry
What viruses could predispose you to an increased risk of developing leukemia?
-EBV- Epstein Barr virus- associated with Burkitt's Lymphoma
-HTLV I- Retro virus associated with adult T-cell leukemia
-HTLV II- associated with atypical HCL
What can increase your risk of developing leukemia?
-bone marrow damage
What types of bone marrow damage can increase the risk for developing leukemia?
radiation, chemicals, and drugs
What types of chromosomal abnormalities can increase the risk for developing leukemia?
-Down Syndrome- Trisomy 21
-Neurofibromatosis- Elephant man's disease; tumors form
- Fanconi's anemia: congenital form of aplastic anemia
What type of hematologic disorders can increase the risk of developing leukemia?
-Polycythemia Vera: stem cell defect
-Aplastic anemia: stem cell defect; BM replaced with fat
-Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS)
What type of disorders could you see in the bone marrow?
-Neutropenia (expect in CML); increased risk in infection
What organs could you see in organ enlargement and infiltration?
- Splenomegaly: red cell graveyard
- CNS tissue
- Gingival hypertrophy: invasion of gums enlarging tissue structure
What type of immunologic malfunction could you expect with leukemia?
Impaired humoral and cellular immunity
Morphology, cytochemistry, immunologic markers, and the nucleus are all used/looked at for what?
To diagnose leukemia
LAP stain differentiates between what?
Leukamoid reaction and CML
True or False:
The LAP stain will have an increased reaction to CML
False: Increased reaction occurs with Leukamoid reactions
This stain is used to differentiate AML from ALL
Phospholipids, neutral fats, and sterols are stained by this.
It is the most sensitive stain for granulocytic precursors
Positive cells are more black/increased intensity of the stain
Used to differentiate AML from ALL
SBB- Sudan Black B
TRAP stain is used for identifying what?
Hairy Cell Leukemia
Nonspecific esterase + equals _______
acute monocytic leukemia
If a test comes back NSE+ what does that mean?
Nonspecific Esterase Stain (NSE) differentiate what 2 leukemia?
Monocytic leukemia from Granulocytic leukemia