What parts of the GI tract are considered to be upper GI tract?
What parts of the GI tract are considered to be lower GI tract?
What are the layers of the muscularis externa of the stomach?
What are the folds in the stomach called?
What are the functions of the stomach?
Initial digestive processes
Acidic environment for defence
Secretion of gastric acid and gut hormones, intrinsic factor and pepsin
What is dyspepsia?
Describes a group of symptoms, pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen (indigestion)
What are the symptoms under the umbrella term dyspepsia?
Upper abdominal discomfort
What are the 2 categories of dyspepsia?
Organic or functional
What are examples of diseases that can cause dyspepsia?
Non ulcer dyspepsia
What are the steps you should follow if a patient presents with dyspepsia?
1) History and examination
3) Drugs history
What bloods should be done for a patient presenting with dyspepsia?
Coeliac serology/serum IgA
What do U&E blood tests measure?
Electrolytes (sodium and potasium) and creatinine
What drugs should be asked about when a patient presents with dyspepsia?
What lifestyle factors should be asked about when a patient presents with dyspepsia?
When should a patient be refered for an endoscopy once they present with dyspepsia?
Loss of weight
Recent onset (>55 years or persistent despite treatment)
Melaena/haematemesis or mass
What is the production of dark, sticky faeces containing partly digested blood called?
What is the vomiting of blood called?
What are difficulties swallowing called?
What are some risks of getting an upper GI endoscopy?
Reaction to drugs given
What are the options for anaesthetic for an upper GI endoscopy?
Local anaesthetic (throat spray) or sedation
Should food be eaten before an upper GI endoscopy?
No, the patient should be fasted
What are characteristics of helicobacter pylori?
What is a microaerophilic organism?
One that requires oxygen to live
What percentage of the world population is infected with helicobacter pylori?
When is helicobacter pylori acquired?
Where does helicobacter pylori colonise?
Gastric type mucosa
Resides in surface mucous layer and does no penetrate the epithelial layer
Why does helicobacter pylori not always evoke the immune response in underlying mucosa?
Dependant on host genetic factors
What does the clinical outcome of an infection with helicobacter pylori depend on?
Site of colonisation
Characteristics of bacteria
Host factors such as genetic susceptibility
Environment factors such as smoking
What are the potential clinical outcomes of a helicobacter pylori infection?