Helicobacter Pylori and Gastric Disease Flashcards Preview

07. Year 2: Alimentary System > Helicobacter Pylori and Gastric Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Helicobacter Pylori and Gastric Disease Deck (73)
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1

What parts of the GI tract are considered to be upper GI tract?

Oesophagus

Stomach

2

What parts of the GI tract are considered to be lower GI tract?

Small intestine

Large intestine

3

What are the layers of the muscularis externa of the stomach?

Oblique muscle

Circular muscle

Longitudinal muscle

4

What are the folds in the stomach called?

Rugae

5

What are the functions of the stomach?

Food storage

Initial digestive processes

Acidic environment for defence

Secretion of gastric acid and gut hormones, intrinsic factor and pepsin

6

What is dyspepsia?

Describes a group of symptoms, pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen (indigestion)

7

What are the symptoms under the umbrella term dyspepsia?

Upper abdominal discomfort

Retrosternal pain

Anorexia

Nausea

Vomiting

Bloting

Fullness

Early satiety

Heartburn

8

What are the 2 categories of dyspepsia?

Organic or functional

9

What are examples of diseases that can cause dyspepsia?

Upper GI:

GORD

Peptic ulcer

Gastritis

Non ulcer dyspepsia

Gastric cancer

 

Gallstones

Pancreatic disease

Coelic disease

Drugs

Psychological

10

What are the steps you should follow if a patient presents with dyspepsia?

1) History and examination

2) Bloods

3) Drugs history

4) Lifestyle

11

What bloods should be done for a patient presenting with dyspepsia?

FBC

Ferritin

LFTs

U&Es

Calcium

Glucose

Coeliac serology/serum IgA

12

What do U&E blood tests measure?

Urea

Electrolytes (sodium and potasium) and creatinine

13

What drugs should be asked about when a patient presents with dyspepsia?

NSAIDs

Steroids

Biphosphonates

Ca antagonists

Nitrates

Theophyllines

14

What lifestyle factors should be asked about when a patient presents with dyspepsia?

Alcohol

Diet

Smoking

Exercise

Weight

15

When should a patient be refered for an endoscopy once they present with dyspepsia?

Anorexia

Loss of weight

Anaemia

Recent onset (>55 years or persistent despite treatment)

Melaena/haematemesis or mass

Dysphagia

16

What is the production of dark, sticky faeces containing partly digested blood called?

Melaena

17

What is the vomiting of blood called?

Haematemesis

18

19

What are difficulties swallowing called?

Dysphagia

20

What are some risks of getting an upper GI endoscopy?

Perforation

Bleeding

Reaction to drugs given

21

What are the options for anaesthetic for an upper GI endoscopy?

Local anaesthetic (throat spray) or sedation

22

Should food be eaten before an upper GI endoscopy?

No, the patient should be fasted

23

What are characteristics of helicobacter pylori?

Gram negative

Spiral-shaped

Microaerophilic

Flagellated

24

What is a microaerophilic organism?

One that requires oxygen to live

25

What percentage of the world population is infected with helicobacter pylori?

50%

26

When is helicobacter pylori acquired?

Childhood

27

Where does helicobacter pylori colonise?

Gastric type mucosa

Resides in surface mucous layer and does no penetrate the epithelial layer

28

Why does helicobacter pylori not always evoke the immune response in underlying mucosa?

Dependant on host genetic factors

29

What does the clinical outcome of an infection with helicobacter pylori depend on?

Site of colonisation

Characteristics of bacteria

Host factors such as genetic susceptibility

Environment factors such as smoking

30

What are the potential clinical outcomes of a helicobacter pylori infection?