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Flashcards in heart Deck (21)
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chambers of heart

RA - blood returns via SVC and IVC and coronary sinus
LA - blood returns via pul veins
RV - outflow to pul trunk
LV - outflow to ascending aorta



tricuspid AV valve - held to wall by cordae tendinea which are embedded in the wall by capillary muscle - prevent eversion
tricuspid - 3 cusps: anterior, posterior, septal between them
semilunar valve made of 3 sinuses/envaginations - when together they will form cylinder
aortic valve - coronary aortic sinus - wall in valve have holes for coronary arteries, one cusp doesn't have hole - non-coronary aortic sinus
mitral valve - anterior and posterior valve



coronary vein return deoxygenated blood - go into RA at coronary sinus
blood travel to RV through tricuspid valve



there is a window between L and R A - bypass of lungs in foetus - valve of foraman ovale - close up at birth = fossa ovale
pul trunk out of back
aytrioventricular valve - mitra



AV valve - tricuspid valve
blood through semilunar valve to pul artery



has a net structure - trabeculae carneae


damage to valve

causes regurgitation
blood flow back into atria


cardiac arrest and MI

CA - electrical event
MI - ischemic event - blood supply issue


conducting system of the heart

SAN - specialised cells - cant see in the DR
atria contract ms before ventricles
purkinje fibres turn back on self - cause depolarisation - contract from bottom


somatic spinal nerves

posterior and ventral/anterior horn
motor nerves travel to skeletal muscle
sensory to body wall
spinal nerves - mix of afferent and efferent fibres
segmental nerves - combine to form plexi supplying cervical, brachial and lumbosacral


what is the pericardium

fibroserous sac surrounding the heart and great vessels
in middle of inferior mediastinum up to the exit of the aorta
fibrous pericardium blends with the outer wall of the aorta and vessels
serous: parietal (line fibrous) and visceral (line heart)


pericardial sinus

infections can occur
transverse pericardial sinus - separates arteries from veins - used clinically to limit the outflow from the heart
oblique sinus - visceral pericardium reflects back on itself to be the parietal layer


formation of the pericardial sinuses

heart starts as tube and folds in on itself


orientation of the heart

anterior - surface close to sternum
diaphragmatic surface
apex - L ventricle, 5th ICS
R and L pulmonary surfaces
inferior and obtuse margins


Left coronary artery

circumflex branch of the L coronary artery
anterior interventricular branch of L coronary artery


R coronary artery

common: posterior interventricular branch of R coronary artery
less common: posterior interventricular branch of circumflex branch of L coronary artery


coronary veins

interventricular veins
all drain into coronary sinus
drain into RA - bring deox blood


branches off the aorta

brachiocephalic trunk - supply R side of the head and neck
L common carotid artery
L subclavian artery


main veins

R and L brachiocephalic veins drain into the SVC


intercostal vessels

from aorta at front and internal thoracic vessels at the front
aorta doesn't reach ICS 1 and 2 - different supply
supply from subclavian arteries - supreme intercostal arteries
happen in coarctation of aorta - squashed


descending aorta

artery to lung
posterior intercostal vessels
back of cest wall from ICS 3