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Flashcards in HD8 Hepatitis Deck (51)
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1

parenteral vs enteral transmission,
which heps are transmitted with each?

parenteral: via a way over then digestive system (Hep, B , C and D)
enteral: (Hep A and E)

2

Whats an acute mode of liver damage?

Infection of the hepatocytes with direct killing by effector lymphocytes

3

What is an effector lymphocyte?

a lymphocyte that has been induced into a form (e.g. cytotoxic Tc cell) capable of mounting a specific immune response

4

What is the mode of chronic liver damadge?

Low level chronic immune damage with additional direct cytopathic effects (structural changes in host cells that are caused by viral invasion) and the sequelae of chronic damage, fibrosis and repair (cirrhosis)

5

For Hep A, mention if its relevant, and how it would be manadged or what it is?
Acute:
Chronic:
Carrier:
Prevention:

acute: self limiting illness (sorts itself out); hospitalisation may not be neccessary. Rarely fatal
chronic: nil
carrier: nil
Prevention: Vaccination (reduced herd immunity, super-added infeciton)

6

For Hep B, mention if its relevant, and how it would be manadged or what it is?
Acute:
Chronic:
Carrier:
Prevention:

Acute: Self Limiting Illness (resolves spontaneously with or without specific treatment); Hospitalization may not be needed
Chronic: sAg positive (+/- eAg) or negative with ongoing liver damage and abnormal LFTs (liver function rests) (raised ALT) , Cancer risk ++ (is a DNA virus and interacts with oncogenic cells), DNA presence of virus postiive beyond 6 months, fulminant liver failure
Chronic symptoms: features of chronic liver disease, ascites (accumulation of poteint contaning fluid within abdomen) , skin thinning, weight loss, variceal bleeding, can be asymptomatic
Carrier: Vertical transmission; Low risk, high infectivity
Prevention: Vaccine, in preganancy caesarian used

7

What type of virus is Hep B?
2) What determines symptoms and effects of Hep B?

1) DNA virus (therefore integrates in the human genome)
2) the host response (which is different in different people)

8

What are responses percentage of the population do you get in the adult population to Hep B?

95% of people will clear the virus normally
5% will fail to clear the virus and develop chronic hepatitis
0.1% will develop fulminant liver failure

9

What is fulminant liver failure?
2) What pecentage of Hep B patient's develop it?

severe impairment of hepatic functions or severe necrosis of hepatocytes in the absence of preexisting liver disease
2) 0.1%

10

What are the risk factors of infection with Hep B in adult infection?

• Sexual transmission (risk relatively high)
• IV drug abuse
• Blood transfusion
• “Soft” blood contact
• Professional Exposure

11

What is the clinical course of adult infection wiht Hep B?

Incubation period” up to 6 weeks
“Flu-like” symptoms 1-2 weeks
Jaundice (other symptoms resolve) 2-4 weeks
Resolution (or continuation= chronic)

12

When is Hep B defined as chronic and not acute?

at 6 months
2) risk of developing cirrhosis and hepato-cellular carcinoma.

13

What is the acute symptoms of hep B?

• Lethargy
• Jaundice & dark urine
• Liver pain

14

What is the chronic symptoms of hep B?

• General Features of Chronic Liver Disease
• Ascites (accumulation of protein-containing (ascitic) fluid within the abdomen)
• Skin thinning
• Weight Loss
• Variceal Bleeding
• Can be totally asymptomatic

15

What are the Liver function tests results from Hep B?

Alkaline phosphatase (increase)
Biliruben (increased)
alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (increased)
Albumin (decreases)
PT (increased)

16

true or false
Degree of elevation of ALT and bilirubin predicts
severity of Hep B:

False

17

What is the normal range of PT and INR?

you are not taking blood thinning medicines, such as warfarin, the normal range for your PT results is: 11 to 13.5 seconds. INR of 0.8 to 1.1.29

18

What antigens are looked at to detect Hep B? What does their presence mean?

HepBsAg (surface antigen) marker of viral presence present in acute and chronic disease and carrier state
HepBeAg (e antigen) marker of degree of viral load in chronic disease and carrier state

19

What antibodies are looked at to detect Hep B? What does their presence mean?

HepBsAb (surface antibody) Marker of immunity
(nb vaccinated patients)
HepBeAb (e antibody) Markers of low risk in chronic
HepBcAb (core antibody) hepatitis patients

20

Describe results for patients with acute Heb B:
1) sAg
2) eAg
3) eAb
4) sAb

1) positive
2) positive
3) negative (but will develop when disease resolves)
4) negative (but will develop when disease resolves)

21

What is looked for to screen for patients with Hep B?
2) what do the positive and negative results of this mean?

Screen patients by sAg.
-ve = no Hep B
+ve =do full markers to assess risk

22

What % of chilren born by vaginal delivery will be infected and become chronic carriers?

50%

23

Children born by vaginal delivery that become infected or carriers of Hep B:
will not develop liver disease (they have no immmune response to the virus)

true

24

Children born by vaginal delivery that become infected or carriers of Hep B:
• will not be infectious (very)

false

25

Children born by vaginal delivery that become infected or carriers of Hep B:
•• might be at risk of liver cancer

true

26

Whats the aim of therapy of Hep B?

The aim of therapy is to clear HBV in patients with chronic hepatitis thereby reducing the risk of cirrhosis (and HCC= Hepatocellular carcinoma)

27

What antivirals are used in therapy of Hep B?

interferon, lamivudine, adefovir

28

What immuno-stim is used in Hep B therapy?

interferon

29

What operation can a chronic Hep B pt undergo?
2) What is the issue with this?

1) liver transplant
2) high re-infection risk

30

Is Hep C
RNA or DNA?

RNA