HD3: Natural history of infection Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in HD3: Natural history of infection Deck (75)
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61

If an infected target cell e.g. a macrophage, is presenting an antigen on the MHC class 1 what will the result be:
b) What type of immunity is this?

1) activation of CH8+ T cell (Th2 cell)
2) release of cytokines (interferon gamma, TNF-alpha), and cytolytic effects of infected cell (perforin (to puncture), granzymes, Fas ligand)
b) cell-mediated

62

What is the name given to this response:
1) activation of CH4+ T cell
2) release of cytokine: IFN-gamma

TH 1 response

63

What is the name given to this response:
1) activation of CH8+ T cell (Th1 cell)
2) release of cytokines (interferon gamma, TNF-alpha), and cytolytic effects of infected cell (perforin (to puncture), granzymes, Fas ligand))

TH 1 response

64

Which cells can produce MHC class 2 ?

professional antigen presenting cells e..g dendritic cells, mononuclear phagocytes

65

Which cells can produce MHC class 1 ?

all

66

What is the effect of IL-4 on T helper cells:

1) if the T helper cell is CD8, will have no affect
2) if the T helper cell is CD4 then will become a type 2 CD4 helper T cell, otherwise IL-2 will stimulate it to become a type 1 CD4 T helper cell

67

what is the main cytokine of the cell mediated response?

interferon-gamma,(then I'd say IL-2 has a big role in proliferating CD 4 type 2 and CD 8 T cells)

68

What are the cells involved in the cell mediated immune response:

1) APCs are highly specialized dendritic cells
2) Th0
3) Th CD8
4) Th2 CD4
5) Memory T cells

69

Main differences between TH2 and TH1 response:

TH1 is cell mediated immune response characteristed by interferon-gamma and is part of the cell mediated immune response (despite that IFN-g is part of the inducing of B cells to make antibodies).
TH2 response is part of the humoral immune response (therefore involves antibodies in fluid) and is characterised by the cytokine IL-4

70

what does IFN-gamma do?

IFN-g
a) activates the bactericidal activities of macrophages
b)induces B cells to make opsonizing (marking for phagocytosis) and complement-fixing antibodies,
= cell-mediated immunity.

71

What does IL-4 do?

1) stimulation of activated B-cell and T-cell proliferation,
2) differentiation of B cells into plasma cells.
3) induces B-cell class switching to IgE,

72

What immune response is more effective against extracellular infections

humoral immune response with a TH 2 response

73

What immune response is more effective against toxins

humoral immune response with a TH 2 respons

74

What immune response is more effective against intracellular infections

cell mediated immune response with a TH1 response e.g. CD8+ T cells cytolytic effects

75

Give the causes of immunodeficiency:

Caused by infection e.g HIV
 Poor diet/alcohol
 Genetic e.g. complement deficiency, CGD,
 Splenic dysfunction (sickle cell disorder)
 Age
 Other diseases e.g. diabetes, cancer