Haemolysis Flashcards Preview

3MB Haematology > Haemolysis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Haemolysis Deck (17)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is haemolysis?

Premature red cell breakdown

2

Why are red cells particularly susceptible to damage?

Biconcave shape
Limited metabolic reserve; rely on glycolysis
Can't generate new protein once circulating

3

What is meant by compensated haemolysis?

Increased red cell destruction followed by increased red cell production
i.e. Hb is maintained

4

What is decompensated haemolysis, AKA haemolytic anaemia?

Increased red cell destruction exceeding level of red cell production
i.e. Hb not maintained

5

What are the consequences of haemolysis?

Erythroid hyperplasia (increased bone marrow RBC turnover)
Excess RBC breakdown products (bilirubin)

6

What are the 2 bone marrow responses to haemolysis?

Reticulocytosis
Erythroid hyperplasia

7

Reticulocytes in the circulation are diagnostic of haemolysis. True/False?

False
Can be present in bleeding, iron therapy, anaemia etc.

8

What are the 2 classifications of haemolysis that make it easier for us to identify the cause?

Extravascular (more common)
Intravascular

9

What does extravascular haemolysis involve?

Hyperplasia at site of destruction
Release of protoporphyrin, resulting in unconjugated jaundice
i.e. normal blood products in excess

10

What does intravascular haemolysis involve?

Red cells destroyed in the circulation and spill contents
i.e. abnormal products

11

What are the 4 main features/products of intravascular haemolysis?

Haemoglobinaemia (free Hb in blood)
Methaemalbuminaemia
Haemoglobinuria (pink urine turns black)
Haemosiderinuria

12

What investigations are done to confirm haemolytic state?

FBC + blood film
Reticulocyte count
Serum unconj. bilirubin
Serum haptoglobin
Urinary urobilinogen

13

What might be seen on a blood film in haemolysis when identifying a cause?

Membrane damage (spherocytes)
Mechanical damage (red cell fragments)
Oxidative damage (Heinz bodies)
Sickle cells

14

What is the direct Coomb's test used for?

Identifies antibody (and Complement) bound to red cells

15

Acute haemolytic transfusion reaction involves Ig? antibody and is usually an intravascular/extravascular haemolysis

Acute haemolytic transfusion reaction involves IgM antibody and is usually an intravascular haemolysis

16

Delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction involves Ig? antibody and is usually an intravascular/extravascular haemolysis

Delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction involves IgG antibody and is usually an extravascular haemolysis

17

List some causes of mechanical red cell destruction

Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Haemolytic uremic syndrome
Leaky heart valve
Infection