GS&GG: Global commons - Antarctica Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in GS&GG: Global commons - Antarctica Deck (22)
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1

What are the 4 threats to Antarctica?

Climate change

Tourism + research

Mining

Fishing + whaling

2

What are 2 negative impacts of tourism on Antarctica?

  • Pollution - sinking of MV explorer and Mount Erebus Air crash
  • Evidence breeding sites of birds near Antarctic bases distrubed

3

What are 2 positive impacts of tourism on Antarctica?

  • Raise awareness of need for conservation (Scott Polar Research Institute)
  • Generally tourists do little damage = research suggests seals and penguins not affected + 95% of landing sites are not damaged

4

What is the IAATO?

The International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators 

5

What does the IAATO do?

 Self-regulates tourism, eg.

guidelines

limited numbers of visitors taken ashore

encourage conservation talk

 prohibits leaving waste

6

How does the IAATO limit damage on Antarctica?

  • Large cruise ships not allowed to land = limits direct damage  (only 53% of tourists actually land) but is a risk of ice-collision + subsequent oil spills.
  • Tourists wear red jackets = show up on the ice
  • Limited numbers of tourists onland/limited number of landings per day/sites 

7

What are 3 ways that climate change threatens Antarctica?

  • Western sea ice shrinkage = changes distribution of penguin colonies eg. emperor penguin and chinstrap population.
  • Less sea ice = less under-shelf algae = Krill numbers declined by 80%
  • Ocean acidification = damaged plankton = impacts food web

8

What are 3 ways that fishing + whaling threaten Antarctica?

  • Whales decreased from 275,000 to 2000
  • Long-line fishing = endangered Patagonian toothfish
  • Depletion of Krill

9

Positives of IWM?

Negatives of IWM?

+ Decreased whaling levels = whale stocks recovered

- Voluntary - can exempt yourself 

- Scientific whaling loophole = Japan

- Doesn't inspect whaling boats so difficult to monitor

10

What international laws help to protect Antarctica?

Antarctic Treaty

Protocol on Environmental Protection

11

What are the 3 rules of the Antarctic Treaty?

Used for peaceful reasons - no army bases/weapons

Cooperation on scientific research

Remain a global commons - no individual country claims

12

What is the PEP?

Added onto Antarctic Treaty 

Focussing on protecting fragile environment

13

What does the 1991 PEP ban?

All mining in Antarctica.

14

What global institutions govern Antartica?

International Whaling Comission

UN Environment Programme

15

What does the IWC do?

Regulates whaling 

Set up Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary

16

Why has the IWC been criticised?

Not properly monitoring whale numbers in sanctuary

17

How does the UNEP protect Antarctica?

Runs CCAMLR which aims to stop illegal fishing and conserve ecosystems.

18

CCAMLR

Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources

19

What does the IWM do?

20

Why is CCAMLR's effectiveness limited?

Individual countries protect own interest.

21

What is a key NGO involved in protecting Antarctica?

Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition

22

What are positives of ASOC?

  • Successfully campaigned to make meetings more transparent
  • Monitors environmental changes + effects of climate change
  • Monitors compliance of countries