Greater Detail: STRUCTURES & MATERIALS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Greater Detail: STRUCTURES & MATERIALS Deck (54)
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1

The incorporation of tiny air bubbles into concrete to improve its workability, strength, and resistance to frost

Air Entertainment

2

Lightweight, corrosion resistant metal with high conductivity but no magnetic properties

Aluminum

3

Thin bituminous liquid asphalt applied between pavement lifts to promote boding
asphalt-to-asphalt
asphalt-to-concrete

Tack Coat

4

Benefits of steel reinforcement in concrete

1. Absorb tensile, shear, and sometimes compressive stresses
2. Ties horizontal and vertical elements
3. Reinforces edges around openings
4. Controls thermal expansion and contraction

5

Best curing temperature for concrete

50 - 85 degrees Fahrenheit

6

A unit of measurement for lumber that equal 1" x 12" x 12"

A board foot

7

2 primary issues for retaining walls related to drainage:

1. Water pressure (groundwater) causes a wall to overturn

2. Saturation of soil (surface runoff) reduces the soil's bearing capacity causing a wall to overturn

8

Method of addressing water pressure in retaining wall design / detailing

Weep holes near base of the wall

Lateral drain pipe installed behind wall to collect and dispose of excess groundwater

9

Method of addressing soil saturation in retaining wall design / detailing

Redirecting stormwater (e.g. Swales / drains uphill of the wall)

10

Curb types (3):

1. Batter-faced (most common)

2. Beveled (mountable)

3. Rounded (mountable)

11

Soil conditions for shallow footings

Firm soil / light structure

12

Soil conditions for deep footings

Weak surface soils with stable underlying soils / bedrock

13

Made of steel or concrete; driven into soil bedrock or soil with sufficient bearing capacity to carry the structural load is met

Piles

14

Similar to piles but constructed by drilling holes and filling with concrete

Caissons

15

A classification system that groups soils based on their suitability for roadway subgrades

AASHTO
American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials

16

Textural classification based on 3 major particle size groups: sand, silt, clay

First developed for agricultural purposes

USDA Textural Classification System

(soil triangle)

17

Stability of structures / footings will depend on (2) :

1. Soil type
2. presence of groundwater / pore water pressure

18

Compaction requirements of fill and the need for sheeting / shoring are dictated by

Soil type

19

Sandy non-cohesive soils (3 features)

More erodible
More permeable
Easy to drain

20

Clayey soils (3 features)

More erosion resistant
Less permeable
More difficult to drain

21

Engineering Properties of Soils

Properties that relate to a soil’s suitability as a construction material

Determined by the soil’s mineralogy, composition, structure, and moisture = these characteristics together influence the soil’s strength, permeability, and compressibility

22

Soils that addresses load-beading requirements while providing adequate space for root growth :

Stone that may be compacted to desired loading requirements but that maintains adequate pore space for root growth

Structural Soils

23

Geotextile Type that conveys water within the plane of the fabric (e.g. to remove excess water)

Drainage

24

Geotextile type that allows movement through plane of fabric while preventing movement of soil particles

Filtration

25

Geotextile type that distributes loads to the underlying soil (e.g. where soft foundation soils are present)

Reinforcement

26

Geotextile type that prevents the mixing of two different materials during installation or where mixing would be detrimental (over a gravel base for concrete)

Separation

27

Geotextile type that prevents the mixing of two different materials during installation or where mixing would be detrimental (over a gravel base for concrete)

Separation

28

Densification of soil by decreasing voids; increasing density of a soil increases its bearing capacity and shear strength

Compaction

Note: increasing moisture content decreases the degree to which soils may be compacted (void spaces are filled w/ water)

29

Standard Proctor Test and Modified Proctor Test

Used to determine soil density

30

Green Roof components (in order from roof deck up) (9)

1. Waterproofing membrane
2. Root Barrier
3. Protection Board
4. Insulation
5. Drainage and retention layer
6. Filter Fabric
7. Growing Medium
8. Planting
9. Mulch