Grand Tour of the Alimentary Canal Flashcards Preview

07. Year 2: Alimentary System > Grand Tour of the Alimentary Canal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Grand Tour of the Alimentary Canal Deck (54)
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1

What are some functions of the digestive system?

Digestion

Secretion

Absorption

Motility

2

What is the function of the mouth?

Break down foodstuff by chewing, saliva acting as a lubricant

3

What is the function of the oesophagus?

Conduit between the mouth and stomach

4

What is the function of the stomach?

Digestion of proteins

Foodstuff reduced to liquid form

Storage

Sterilisation

5

What is the function of the pancreas?

Digestive enzymes for digestion of fats, carbohydrates and proteins

6

What is the function of the liver?

Produce bile salts for digestion/absorption of fats in the small intestine

7

What is the function of the gallbladder?

Stores and concentrates bile

8

What is the function of the small intestine?

Final stages of chemical digestion and nutrient absorption

9

What is the function of the large intestine?

Water absorption

Bacterial fermentation and formation of faeces

10

In basic terms what is the alimentary canal?

Continuous hollow tube from the oesophagus to the rectum

11

How long is the alimentary canal?

About 8m long

12

What can be said about the structural formation of the alimentary canal throughout its length?

It is the same throughout its length with 4 distinct layers

13

What are the 4 distinct layers of the alimentary canal?

Mucosa

Submucosa

Muscularis external

Serosa/adventitia

14

Where is stratified squamous epithelium found?

Mouth

Oesophagus

Anal canal

15

Where is simple columnar epithelium?

Stomach

Small intestine

Large intestine

16

What is the functions of epithelium?

Separate lumen of alimentary canal from the body

Synthesis and secretion of digestive enzymes, hormones and mucus

Absorbs products of digestion

17

What are the layers of the mucosa?

Epithelium

Lamina propria

Muscularis mucosae

18

What is lamina propria?

Loose connective tissue (glands, blood and lymph vessels)

19

What is muscularis mucosae?

Thin smooth muscle layer

20

What is submucosa?

Thick, irregular connective tissue to support mucosa

21

What does the submucosa contain?

Nuerons

Blood vessels

Lymphatic vessels

22

What do neurons form in the submucosa?

Submucosal plexus (parasympathetic)

23

Is the submucosal plexus sympathetic or parasympathetic?

Parasympathetic

24

Where are submucosal glands found?

Oesophagus

Duodenum

25

What makes up the muscularis externa?

Two concentric thick layers of smooth muscles (inner layer and outer layer)

26

What is the inner layer of the muscularis externa?

Circular muscle

27

What is the outer layer of the muscularis externa?

Longitudinal muscle

28

What is the function of the circular muscle?

Constrict lumen

29

What is the function of the longitudinal muscle?

Shortens tube

30

What is the function of the muscularis externa?

Produce motility for peristalsis and segmentation