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Sociology AS Level > Glossary For Education > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glossary For Education Deck (118)
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31

Define prejudice

A favourable or unfavourable preconceived feelings or opinion formed without knowledge, reason, or thought that prevents objective consideration of person, group or thing

32

Define discrimination

The unequal treatment of a person or group on the basis of their statuses

33

Define positive sanctions

A reward for conforming to established norms

34

Define negative sanctions

A punishment for breaking an established norm

35

Define institution

A custom or organisation that has long been held as an important feature of some group of society

36

Define structural approach

Individuals are entirely shaped by the structure of society

37

Define social action approach

Individuals have free will and choice

38

Define social solidarity

The social ties that bind a group of people together such as kinship , shared location and religion

39

Define collective conscience

The communal beliefs, morals and attitudes of a society

40

Define division of labour

Dividing up a job in order to speed up the process of a job

41

Define social beings

Everyone who goes through the socialisation process, becomes social beings

42

Define universal standards

Expectations of behaviour for individuals in a society that they have to follow

43

Define bourgeoisie

The class that owns the means of production

44

Define proletariat

The working class, wage earning labourers

45

Define exploitation

The action or fact of treating someone unfairly in order to benefit from their work

46

Define alienation

An individuals isolation from his or hers society, work and sense of self

47

Define socialism

A political and economic theory of social organisations which advocates that the means of production, distribution and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole

48

Define communism

An ideology or political theory that advocates collective ownership of resources and a classless society

49

Define means of production

The instrument ms and materials used to produce goods and services

50

Define trade unions

Organised association of workers in trade

51

Define ideology

A system of ideas and ideals especially one which forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy

52

Define hierarchy

The system of power distribution in which an individual or group resides within a culture, organisation or society

53

Define social stratification

A system of inequality based on ranking people or groups based on power, prestige and wealth

54

Define correspondence principles

Theory that posits a close relationship between social standings and the educational system

55

Define postmodernism

The belief that society is changing rapidly

56

Define fordism

The modern economic and social systems based on industrialised, standardised mass production and mass consumption

57

Define post fordism

Name given to the dominant system of economic production, consumption and associated socio-economic phenomena

58

Define tripartite system

Made up of 3 types of schools = grammar schools, technical colleges and secondary modern

59

Define grammar schools

A state secondary school to which pupils are admitted on the basis of ability

60

Define secondary modern schools

A secondary school of a kind offering a general education to children not selected for grammar or technical schools