Flashcards in Globalization Deck (21)
- consolidation of the whole world into one space
- compression of the world and the increased sense of one world
- balance and blend between homogenization and differentiation, integration and disintigration, unification and diversification
How did globalization happen?
- international capital
- neoliberal economies
- deregulation of markets and free trade zones
- similar economic/political system globally
- large TNCs operate globally with similar look and feel
- products available globally
- niche/boutique marketing
- cultural inflections on products
- multicultural society: anything you want is available
Globalization processes have been greatly facilitated by _____ _____.
Globalization encompasses numerous spheres:
Sport is perhaps the most powerful ____ ____.
Globalization is not...but is...
- either good or bad
- both good and bad
Globalization: the good:
- increased diversity of athletes and increased participation, esp. from smaller countries
- boundary crossing: gender, religious, climate
- increasing opportunities for coaches, athletes, and leaders
- promote peace
Globalization: The bad:
- using developing countries to manufacture products
- mobile athletes where country of origin no longer matters
- increased involvement of sport media gathering
- environmental impact
Labour issue #1:
- TNCs are complicit in using developing countries' cheaper labour
- makes us complicit when we buy it
- TNCs argue that they often pay above minimum wage for that country
Labour issue #2:
- migration of athletes
- while athletes can benefit personally, developing countries often do not
- emphasis on individualism
- very rarely is the donor country fairly compensated because capitalism demands best bang for its buck
When sport is driven largely by ___ and ___ _____, _____ occurs.
- media conglomerates
Commodification in sports:
- sport/athletes become products
- non-sellable products do not thrive
- sporting diversity and heritage diminishes
- sport changes (rules, commercials, product placement)
- becomes more about the spectacle and less about athletic achievements
Circuits of promotion:
- advertising a product in one venue where that venue is itself a product advertised in the original product's venue
- like mutual back scratching
Because sport is a ____ and focused on ____, _____ occur.
costs created by but not paid by the sporting bodies and/or owners
____ ____ are one significant source of externalities.
Why don't they stop environmental costs?
it costs more to repair damage or not cause it
The inconvenient question:
what are we willing to share of our profits/benefits with poorer countries who provide the labour and athletes?