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Flashcards in Globalisation and Crime Deck (21)
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1

What are Marxist approaches to civil war?

Conflict between social classes in cities where conflict is physically circumscribed (Russion Revolution and Bolshevism)

2

What is a sub-state war?

Between non-state actors within or across borders

3

What is an inter-state war?

Between two sovereign states

4

What is an intra-state war?

Between a state and one or more non-state groups within its boundaries

5

What is an extra-state war?

Between a state and one or more non-state groups outside its boundaries

6

How many armed conflicts were there in 2009 according to the UCDP?

36
29 were interstate
7 were internationalised

7

What is the UN legal definition of organised crime?

A group of three or more people that have formed for a reason, have existed for a period of time, have the aim of committing at least one crime punishable by at leas four years incarceration and gain financial or material benefit

8

How much does transnational organised crime make every year according to the UNODC?

$870 billion

9

What are the key agencies for tackling organised crime?

UN (UNODC)
Interpol
Europol
NCA

10

What does the UN focus on in terms of organised crime?

Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children;
Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air.
Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing and Trafficking in Firearms

11

What is the NCA?

The UK National Central Bureau for Interpol and acts as a focal point for incoming and outgoing interpol enquiries

12

What is the 1st approach to organised crime?

Prosecute - Works for small-fry criminals but less successful in combating national and transnational organised crime

13

What is the 2nd approach to organised crime?

Disruption - 'use biros rather than batons' i.e. the Al Capone approach (convicted of tax evasion)

14

What are the UNODC solutions to organised drug crime?

International co-operation
Education and awareness
Intelligence gathering
Assist developing countries

15

What year was the slave trade and slavery outlawed?

Slave trade - 1807
Slavery - 1833

16

What is chattel slavery?

When someone is treated as property that can be bought, sold, traded and inherited

17

What is modern slavery?

Forced labour and marriage

18

What are the components of human trafficking?

Lack of consent
Ongoing exploitation
Internal and international
Source of profits

19

What is the difference between trafficking and smuggling?

“‘Smuggling’ refers to consensual transactions where the smuggler and the migrant agree to circumvent immigration control for mutually advantageous reasons. The smuggling relationship technically ends with the crossing of the border. The two critical ingredients are illegal border crossing by the smuggled person and receipt of a material benefit by the smuggler.”
(Bhaba and Zard, 2006)

20

What are the ILO forced labour protocols?

"All work or service that is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily" (1930)

21

What are the three UN 2000 Palermo Trafficking protocols?

1. The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children;
2. The Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air.
3. The Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition