Flashcards in Globalisation and Crime Deck (21)
What are Marxist approaches to civil war?
Conflict between social classes in cities where conflict is physically circumscribed (Russion Revolution and Bolshevism)
What is a sub-state war?
Between non-state actors within or across borders
What is an inter-state war?
Between two sovereign states
What is an intra-state war?
Between a state and one or more non-state groups within its boundaries
What is an extra-state war?
Between a state and one or more non-state groups outside its boundaries
How many armed conflicts were there in 2009 according to the UCDP?
29 were interstate
7 were internationalised
What is the UN legal definition of organised crime?
A group of three or more people that have formed for a reason, have existed for a period of time, have the aim of committing at least one crime punishable by at leas four years incarceration and gain financial or material benefit
How much does transnational organised crime make every year according to the UNODC?
What are the key agencies for tackling organised crime?
What does the UN focus on in terms of organised crime?
Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children;
Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air.
Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing and Trafficking in Firearms
What is the NCA?
The UK National Central Bureau for Interpol and acts as a focal point for incoming and outgoing interpol enquiries
What is the 1st approach to organised crime?
Prosecute - Works for small-fry criminals but less successful in combating national and transnational organised crime
What is the 2nd approach to organised crime?
Disruption - 'use biros rather than batons' i.e. the Al Capone approach (convicted of tax evasion)
What are the UNODC solutions to organised drug crime?
Education and awareness
Assist developing countries
What year was the slave trade and slavery outlawed?
Slave trade - 1807
Slavery - 1833
What is chattel slavery?
When someone is treated as property that can be bought, sold, traded and inherited
What is modern slavery?
Forced labour and marriage
What are the components of human trafficking?
Lack of consent
Internal and international
Source of profits
What is the difference between trafficking and smuggling?
“‘Smuggling’ refers to consensual transactions where the smuggler and the migrant agree to circumvent immigration control for mutually advantageous reasons. The smuggling relationship technically ends with the crossing of the border. The two critical ingredients are illegal border crossing by the smuggled person and receipt of a material benefit by the smuggler.”
(Bhaba and Zard, 2006)
What are the ILO forced labour protocols?
"All work or service that is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily" (1930)