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Flashcards in Global Flows of Shipping and Sea Cables Deck (7)
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Global trade patterns and networks

- trade in physical goods includes movements of primary industry products (food, energy, raw materials) and manufactured items (processed food, electronics)
- world trade dominated by developed countries and large EEs including the BRIC group
- value of world trade and global GDP risen by ~2% annually since 1945 (except 2008-09 due to GFC)
- majority of trade between developed countries due to affluent consumers and markets found in wealthier countries
- middle class diets characterised by greater consumption of meat and dairy, China's annual meet consumption pc rose from 4 to 52kg between 1990 and 2010
- Despite 'slow' China's worlds greatest export of goods, 2013 = $2 trillion, emerged dominant influence of world trade in 1980s


Container shipping trends

- over 600 million containers are moved across oceans annually, shipping described as 'backbone' to global economy esersince industry's pioneer
- intermodal containers = large capacity units transported long distances on several forms of transport
- MSC Oscar 395m long, 48m Wie and can carry 19,000 containers - container vessels increasing in size and fewer running
- average size of ships increased by 90% in past 20 years
- vessels built at greater rate than growth of global trade, container ships operating from china been saving with too few containers to make profit
- supply chains shortened as more MNCs restoring operations as a result of rising costs and risks (sourcing locally instead of distant offshore locations)
- ship breaking taking place in India and Bangladesh due to cheaper labour and fewer health and safety regulations


Regulating shipping flows

- UNCLOS guarantees all shipping the right of innocent passage through waters of any state
- regulation needed to safeguard environment from shipping movements, especially oil tankers as a result of transboundary pollution events
- Coastal margins of France and UK several effected by 119,000 tonnes of oil released from Torrey Canyon Supertanker in 1967
- 80km beaches of UK contaminated, UK's worst environmental disaster
- 1990s = 358 spills of over 7 tns, successful regulation under UNCLOS reduced oil lice by 75% in 200s


Identifying and tackling illegal Trans-oceanic flows

- illegal transoceanic flows of people, narcotics, counterfeit property, stolen good and wildlife link society and places together globally
- UN repeatedly called states to work together to tackle crime flows, many using open oceans and territorial waters as operational space


People trafficking

- over 90% migrants illegally use services to cross Mediterranean
- criminal networks involving migrant smuggling turned over ~4 billion, highly profitable



- recently increased across Mediterranean and Atlantic as Europe coastline is poorly monitored by security agencies
- illegal drugs, guns and counterfeits enter EU routinely via its coastal margins
- after 2001 NY terror attacks, UN introduced security I form of ISPS giving port authorities heightened security powers to monitor shipping and control access fo vessels


Slavery at sea

- allegations of exploitation and slavery in parts of UK fishing fleet, relies on foreign labour
- hard to protect human rights of workers who do not have permission to live in UK however are legally allowed to work in British waters