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Flashcards in Genitourinary Deck (66)
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1

what is the most common type of kidney stone?

calcium makes up 85% of kidney stone

2

what is the most specific imaging modality for diagnosing kidney stones?

CT

3

Will a spermatocele transilluminate?

Yes

4

A kidney stone of less than what size will likely pass on its own?

less than 5 mm

5

List three possible treatments for stress incontinence in women.

Kegels, estrogen therapy, surgical placement of a urethral sling

6

A 65 year old male presents with frequency. On digital rectal exam you feel an elastic moderately enlarged prostate. What is the most likely diagnosis?

BPH

7

A PSA above what level should start to make you concerned?

more than 4.0

8

Give two major risk factors for erectile dysfunction

Diabetes, hypertension, depression, coronary artery disease

9

List one major risk factor for bladder cancer?

Smoking

10

Define paraphimosis

foreskin is retracted and cannot by reduced

11

Which problem is an emergency phimosis or paraphimosis?

Paraphimosis

12

What is the name of the condition that involves fibrous scar tissue in the penis causing a curvature of the erect penis?

peyronie's disease

13

Both testicles should be descended by what age?

3 months

14

Feeling a bag of worms in the scrotum should make you think of what diagnosis?

varicocele

15

A fluid filled painless mass found in the scrotum which transilluminates should make you think of what diagnosis?

hydrocele

16

What is the first line treatment for a varicocele?

Watchful waiting unless there is a question of fertility.

17

Name the sign which is defined as decreased pain with scrotal elevation?

Prehn's sign

18

Maltese crosses in the urine should make you think of what diagnosis?

Nephrotic syndrome

19

What is the imaging study of choice if you suspect bladder cancer?

Cystoscopy and biopsy

20

What is the most likely diagnosis for a free floating, painless, cystic mass found posterior and superior to the testis?

spermatocele

21

What age range is typically associated with testicular torsion?

10-20 years old

22

Where is the epididymis found?

It is found at the posterior upper pole.

23

What is the best imaging to rule out testicular torsion?

Doppler U/S for decreased blood flow to the testes.

24

What are the two most common causes of epididymitis?

Neisseria gonorrhea and chlamydia

25

What medicaton classes are prescribed in order to help prevent chronic renal failure in diabetic patients?

ACEIs or ARBs

26

Will epididymitis feel better with scrotal elevation?

Yes

27

What is the normal level of serum bicarbonate (HCO3)?

24 mEq/Liter

28

What is the treatment for epididymitis?

Ceftriaxone and doxycycline

29

What is the first line antibiotic treatment for cystitis?

Bactrim

30

What is the most common organism that causes a bladder infection?

E. coli