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Flashcards in Genetics Test Deck (79)
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1

What is genetics?

scientific study of heredity

2

What is fertilization?

the action or process of fertilizing an egg, female animal, or plant, involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote.

3

What is true-breeding?

term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate.

4

what is a trait?

specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another

5

What is a hybrid?

offspring of crosses between parents with different traits.

6

What is a gene?

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait.

7

What is an allele?

one of a number of different forms of a gene

8

what is a gamete?

specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction

9

What does homozygous mean?

term used to refer to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait.

10

what does heterozygous mean?

term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait

11

What is a phenotype?

physical characteristics of an organsim

12

genotype

genetic makeup of an organism

13

independent assortment

independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes

14

incomplete dominance

situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another

15

codominance

situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism

16

multiple alleles

three or more alleles of the same gene

17

polygenic traits

traits controlled by two or more genes

18

gene map

diagram showing the relative locations of each known gene on a particular chromosomes

19

transformation

process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria

20

transcription

process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary strand of RNA

21

translation

decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain

22

intron

sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein

23

exon

expressed sequence of Dna; codes for a protein

24

codon

three nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid

25

anticodon

group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon

26

mutation

change in DNA sequence that affects genetic information

27

What did Gregor Mendel do?

he worked with peas, wanting to cross pollinating them to see what traits would appear in the offspring

28

hybrid

the offspring of crosses between parents with different traits

29

what did Mendel conclude?

From these experiments, Mendel concluded that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive.

30

What is the principle of dominance?

some alleles are dominant and others are recessive.