Flashcards in Genetics Test Deck (79)
What is genetics?
scientific study of heredity
What is fertilization?
the action or process of fertilizing an egg, female animal, or plant, involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote.
What is true-breeding?
term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate.
what is a trait?
specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another
What is a hybrid?
offspring of crosses between parents with different traits.
What is a gene?
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait.
What is an allele?
one of a number of different forms of a gene
what is a gamete?
specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction
What does homozygous mean?
term used to refer to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait.
what does heterozygous mean?
term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait
What is a phenotype?
physical characteristics of an organsim
genetic makeup of an organism
independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes
situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another
situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
three or more alleles of the same gene
traits controlled by two or more genes
diagram showing the relative locations of each known gene on a particular chromosomes
process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria
process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary strand of RNA
decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
expressed sequence of Dna; codes for a protein
three nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
change in DNA sequence that affects genetic information
What did Gregor Mendel do?
he worked with peas, wanting to cross pollinating them to see what traits would appear in the offspring
the offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
what did Mendel conclude?
From these experiments, Mendel concluded that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive.