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Flashcards in Genetics Deck (31)
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1

Genetics

The study of genes

2

Hereditary

the passing of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.

3

Traits

a genetically determined characteristic

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True Breeding

Those that consistently produce offspring the same as the parents.

5

Dominant

traits that are expressed

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Recessive

Traits that are covered up

7

Gametes

Reproductive cells (ova-females and sperm-males). They combine to form a new baby cell.

8

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid- a long molecule that each gene is made of.

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Chromosomes

in the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged in a thread, like structure.

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Diploid cells

complete set of chromosomes

11

Haploid Cells

half set of chromosomes

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Alleles

Different form of the same gene.

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Genotype

The types of genes (alleles) present

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Phenotype

Appearance pronounced by a genotype

15

Homozygous

Both alleles are the same

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Heterozygous

Both alleles are different

17

What do A,T,C and G stand for?

Adenine
Thymine
Cytosine
Guanine
Urasiel

18

Continuous variation

Height and weight

19

Dis-continuous variation

Colour

20

What are the parts of DNA.

-sugar-phosphate chain
-base pairs (AT, TA, CG, GC)

21

Codons

A sequence of three nucleotides that together form a unit of genetic code in DNA or RNA molecules. eg. GAC, TTT, CCC, GAT

22

Mutations

Any spontaneous change in a gene or chromosome that may produce an alteration in the characteristic for which it codes.

23

Meiosis

a type of cell division that results in 4 daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell. Occurs for reproductive cells

24

Mitosis

A type of cell division that results in two daughter cells being an exact copy of the parent cell. Occurs in somatic cells eg skin, muscles. Used for healing, repair and growth.

25

Mutagens

an agent which causes genetic mutation eg. x-rays, gamma rays and ultra violet light

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Good and Bad Mutations

Good- new and improved variations
Bad- diseases such as HIV

27

Selective Breeding

intention mating of two animals in attempt to produce offspring with desirable characteristics or eliminate traits

28

Plasmids

circular pieces of DNA in bacteria. human DNA can be inserted into plasmids to correct mutations.

29

In terms of chromosomes, whats the main difference between a female and male?

girls = XX
boys = XY

30

FOCUS ON STAGES OF MITOSIS

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