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Flashcards in Genetic Engineering/Human Genome Test Deck (40)
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1

What do humans accomplish by genetic engineering?

it takes advantage of naturally occuring genetic variation in plants, animals, and other organisms, to pass desired traits on to the generation of organisms.

2

hybridization

crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms.

3

inbreeding

the continued breeding of inividuals with similar characteristics

4

what are the ultimate source of genetic variations?

mutations

5

How are changes made to DNA?

Scientists use their knowledge of the structure of DNA and its chemical properties to study and change DNA molecules,. Different techniques are used to extract DNA from cells, to cut DNA into smaller pieces, to identify the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule, and to make unlimited copies of DNA.

6

genetic engineering

making changes in the DNA code of a living organism

7

how do biologists get DNA out of a cell?

the cells are opened and the DNA is separated from the other cell parts.

8

restriction enzymes

each one cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides.

9

how can DNA fragments be separated?

one way is a procedure known as gel electrophresis

10

gel electrophresis

a mixture of DN fragments are placed at one end of a porous gel, and an electric voltage is applied to the ge;. When the power is turned on, DNA molecules, which are negatively charged, move toward the positive end of the gel.

11

recombinant DNA

DNA produced by combining DNA from diffrent sources

12

polymerase chain reaction

allows biologists to make unlimited copies of a strand of DNA

13

what happens during transformation?

a cell takes in DNA from outside the cell. This external DNA becomes a component of the cell's DNA

14

plasmid

circular molecule of DNA and are found naturally in bacteria and have been very useful for DNA transfer.

15

genetic marker

a gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry the plasmid (and the foreign DNA) frm those that don't

16

what happens if transformation is successful?

the recombinant DNA is integrated into one of the chromosomes of the cell.

17

transgenic

contain genes from other species

18

biotechnology

a new industry that is changing the way we interact with the living world.

19

clone

a member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell

20

how was Dolly the sheep made?

1. A donor cell is taken from a sheep's udder and an egg cell is taken from an adult female sheep and the nucleus of the egg cell is removed.
2. the two cells are fused using an electric shock. The fused cell begins dividing normally.
3. The embryo is placed in the uterus of a foster mother. The embro develops into a lamb.

21

karyotype

a picture of chromosomes grouped in pairs

22

sex chromosomes

chromosomes that determine an individual's sex ( X, X is a female, X,Y is a male)

23

autosomes

the 44 chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes

24

what gender is XX

female

25

what gender is XY

male

26

pedigree chart

shows the relationships within a family. can be used to infer the genotypes of family members

27

what are the known human blood groups

Rh and ABO

28

what are the genotypes of ABO

IAIA or IAi, IBIB or IBi, IAIB, ii

29

what are the genotypes for the Rh group

positive: Rh+/Rh+ or Rh+/Rh- Negative: Rh-/Rh-

30

what causes both sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis?

a small change in the DNA of a single gene affects the structue of a protein, causing a serious genetic disorder