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Flashcards in General Terms Deck (20)
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1

Rationalism

-innate knowledge
-reason is source of knowledge
-deductive reasoning
-main applications: mathematics, logic
-Plato, Descartes, Leibniz

2

Empiricism (opposite of rationalism)

-no innate knowledge
-perception as source of knowledge
- research methods: observation, experimentation, inductive reasoning
-main applications: natural sciences
-natural philosophers
-Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Aristotle

3

Idealism

-knowledge is a construction of mind
-does not necessarily correspond to an outside world
-world exists solely in the minds of people
-ultimate truth relies on consistency of ideas
-has Ringe coherent with knowledge in social groups
-Plato, Socratic method
-Berkeley
-> experience is all there is

4

Realism

-only reality is the material world
-study of outer world is only reliable truth
-Aristotle

5

Positivism

-authentic knowledge can only be obtained by means of scientific method
-religion and philosophy as inferior forms of an explanation
-science as core to progress
-Comte

6

Materialism

-what we call neuroscience today
-facts of universe can be explained in physical terms by the existence of nature of matter
-Problem of being an atheist
-one substance only

Old style materialism: man a machine , no soul, matter has a mind-like characteristic

7

Interactionsim

-before Descartes:
-interaction flows in one direction -> mind has big influence on body

-Descartes:
-mutual interaction between body and mind

8

Dualism

-mind is immaterial and independent of body
-Cartesian dualism
-brain and mental states are different substances

9

Functionalism

-approach that examined practical functions of the human mind inspired by the evolutionary theory
-James

10

Structuralism

-trying to discover the structure of the human mind by means of instrospection
-Titchener

11

Determinism

-acts are determined by past events

12

Reductionism

-explains phenomena on one level (like complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (like simple ideas)
-reducing things to its simples parts (molecules or atoms)

13

Associationism

-theory that all mental activity is based on connections between basic mental events, such as sensations and feelings

14

Mentalism

-all knowledge is a function of mental phenomena
-depends on person perceiving
-subjective
-does not mirror external world

15

Uniformitarianism

-assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in our present-day scientific observations have always operated in the universe in past and apply everywhere in the universe

-no god given direction or process

16

Parallelism

-Leibniz (1646-1716)
-body and mind are independent from each other
-God creates two chains of events occurring simultaneously
-no interaction, still always five exactly same time

17

Epiphenomenalism

-view that mental events are caused by physical events in the brain but have no effect on any physical events

-bath Tab problem

18

Mysterianism

-we do not understand relation and we never will

19

neutral monism

- mental and physical are two ways of organizing or describing the Same elements which are themselves neutral (neither physical or mental)
-universe consist of only one kind of stuff

20

Idealism = Mentalism = immaterialism

-maintains that the mind is all that exists
-the only existence substance is mental
- the external world is either mental itself or an illusion created by the mind
-> problem of interaction between body and mind is not a problem at all
-Kant, Berkeley