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Flashcards in General Cardiology Deck (74)
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61

What is the evidence supporting rhythm control in AF in the setting of HFPEF?

Observational registry data show 7% ARR for all cause death for rhythm control vs rate control.

62

What are the features that identify RA and LA lead reversal?

Lead 1 - complete inversion
aVR - positive
Marked right axis deviation

63

What are the features that identify LL and LA lead reversal?

Lead 3 - complete inversion
Lead 1 p wave smaller than lead 2

64

What are the features that identify RA and LL lead reversal?

Lead 1/2/3 - complete inversion
aVR - positive

65

What are the features that identify RA and RL lead reversal?

Lead 2 - very flat

66

What are the features that identify LA and RL lead reversal?

Lead 3 - flat

67

What are the features that identify Bilateral arm and leg lead reversal?

Lead 1 is flat

68

What are the three risk factors that predict acute heart failure in a patient with takotsubo cardiomyopathy?

Age >70
Physical stressor
LVEF <40%

69

What are the major risk factors for poor prognosis with pericarditis?

1. Fever >38
2. Subacute course
3. Larger effusion (diastolic >20mm)
4. Tamponade
5. No response to NSAIDs in 7 days

70

What are the minor risk factors for poor prognosis with pericarditis?

1. Myopericarditis
2. Immunosuppression
3. Trauma
4. Oral anticoagulant therapy

71

What are the causes of constrictive pericarditis?

1. Idiopathic/viral (50%)
2. Post Cardiac Surgery (10-40%)
3. Radiation induced (10-30%)
4. Connective tissue disease (5%)
5. Post Infectious (5%)

72

In constrictive pericarditis, does pericardial thickness predict clinical response to pericardiectomy?

No

73

What are the three situations where medical therapy is mainstay in the treatment of constrictive pericarditis?

1. TB related constrictive pericarditis (ARR of >70%)
2. Inflammatory pericarditis related construction (generally resolves with Rx)
3. Surgery is contraindicated (supportive)

74

What are the features of end stage constrictive pericarditis?

1. Cachexia
2. Atrial fibrillation
3. Low cardiac output <1.2 L/m2/min
4. Cirrhosis
5. Hypoalbuminaemia