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KRLS 304 > Gender Verification > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gender Verification Deck (23)
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1

The shifting location of women in sport beginning in 1966.

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2

Explain the problem with trying to determine whether an athlete is female.

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3

Know what the advantage thesis is and why it is discriminatory.

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4

Explain the challenges for transgender people in sport:

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5

Explain Ewa Klobukowska's case:

- one too many chromosomes to be a woman
- banned from competition in 1967
- 1968 Olympics: would have passed Barr Body Test

6

Explain Irina Press' case:

- 2x gold medalist
- retired abruptly with the introduction of gender verification in 1966

7

How does the advantage thesis motivate sex verification testing?

states that males have more power, endurance, and strength than females

8

Describe sex testing from 1966-1968:

- on the body
- external genitalia
- naked parades
- too humiliating and degrading to continue

9

Describe sex testing from 1968-1992:

- in chromosomes
- Barr body test
- XX = female, XY = male

10

First problem with Barr body test: the following women fail the Barr body test but shouldn't:

- women with Turner's syndrome have one X chromosome
- women with XY pattern but resistance to testosterone
- women with gonadal dysgenesis

11

Second problem with Barr body test: the following people would pass as females under the Barr body test:

- women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia or androgen-secreting tumors do have an edge in muscle mass and strength
- Men with Klinefelter's Syndrome have XXY pattern
- XX males also have muscle mass and strength advantages

12

Describe sex testing from 1992-1999:

- in genetic code
- focused on one particular region of the Y chromosome
- asked women to prove that they weren't male instead of prove they were female
- similar problems to the Barr body test resulted

13

As a result of these problems, the IOC opted to...

suspend general sex verification in 2000 Sydney Olympics

14

Describe sex testing from 2000-2011:

- back to the body, suspicion based testing
- IOC reserved the right to test 'suspicious' women

15

Describe sex testing from 2011 on:

- hormone levels, specifically testosterone
- shifts the emphasis from whether you are a woman to whether hormone levels cause an unfair advantage

16

How does fair play/advantage thesis motivate testing?

- males are not tested
- only MTF not FTM tested

17

Why have some women's groups been at odds with advocates for transgender inclusion?

- binary sex determination (main reason)
- discrimination/phobia
- advantage thesis

18

How does this illustrate normalization?

an oppressed/marginalized group works hard to do the same to another group

19

1st World Outgames said _____ _____ mattered more than _____ ______.

- physical gender
- physical attributes

20

Gender verification today:

- hormone levels are now used
- premised on the idea that the level is important to conveying an unfair advantage
- playing field has never been level
- O2 carrying capacity, lactate thresholds, and other physiological/biological factors vary between people
- Females produce androgen naturally, why isn't this seen as a gift?
- training varies across socio-economic levels

21

Gender policies have regulated access to sport events by using ____ ____ when there is ...

- binary classifications
- no scientific or biological proof that a binary exists

22

The advantage thesis, which is based on the ____ ____ _____, seems to privilege assumptions of ____ ____ over the impact of ______.

- two sex dichotomy
- fair play
- discrimination

23

The advantage thesis discriminates by...

requiring adherence to the binary sex system