Flashcards in Gender Verification Deck (23)
The shifting location of women in sport beginning in 1966.
Explain the problem with trying to determine whether an athlete is female.
Know what the advantage thesis is and why it is discriminatory.
Explain the challenges for transgender people in sport:
Explain Ewa Klobukowska's case:
- one too many chromosomes to be a woman
- banned from competition in 1967
- 1968 Olympics: would have passed Barr Body Test
Explain Irina Press' case:
- 2x gold medalist
- retired abruptly with the introduction of gender verification in 1966
How does the advantage thesis motivate sex verification testing?
states that males have more power, endurance, and strength than females
Describe sex testing from 1966-1968:
- on the body
- external genitalia
- naked parades
- too humiliating and degrading to continue
Describe sex testing from 1968-1992:
- in chromosomes
- Barr body test
- XX = female, XY = male
First problem with Barr body test: the following women fail the Barr body test but shouldn't:
- women with Turner's syndrome have one X chromosome
- women with XY pattern but resistance to testosterone
- women with gonadal dysgenesis
Second problem with Barr body test: the following people would pass as females under the Barr body test:
- women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia or androgen-secreting tumors do have an edge in muscle mass and strength
- Men with Klinefelter's Syndrome have XXY pattern
- XX males also have muscle mass and strength advantages
Describe sex testing from 1992-1999:
- in genetic code
- focused on one particular region of the Y chromosome
- asked women to prove that they weren't male instead of prove they were female
- similar problems to the Barr body test resulted
As a result of these problems, the IOC opted to...
suspend general sex verification in 2000 Sydney Olympics
Describe sex testing from 2000-2011:
- back to the body, suspicion based testing
- IOC reserved the right to test 'suspicious' women
Describe sex testing from 2011 on:
- hormone levels, specifically testosterone
- shifts the emphasis from whether you are a woman to whether hormone levels cause an unfair advantage
How does fair play/advantage thesis motivate testing?
- males are not tested
- only MTF not FTM tested
Why have some women's groups been at odds with advocates for transgender inclusion?
- binary sex determination (main reason)
- advantage thesis
How does this illustrate normalization?
an oppressed/marginalized group works hard to do the same to another group
1st World Outgames said _____ _____ mattered more than _____ ______.
- physical gender
- physical attributes
Gender verification today:
- hormone levels are now used
- premised on the idea that the level is important to conveying an unfair advantage
- playing field has never been level
- O2 carrying capacity, lactate thresholds, and other physiological/biological factors vary between people
- Females produce androgen naturally, why isn't this seen as a gift?
- training varies across socio-economic levels
Gender policies have regulated access to sport events by using ____ ____ when there is ...
- binary classifications
- no scientific or biological proof that a binary exists
The advantage thesis, which is based on the ____ ____ _____, seems to privilege assumptions of ____ ____ over the impact of ______.
- two sex dichotomy
- fair play