Gastrointestinal Tracts Lab 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Gastrointestinal Tracts Lab 7 Deck (26)
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1

Name the three functional regions the stomach is divided into

Duodenum
Jejunum
ileum

2

What is the primary function of the stomach

Digestion of macronutrients

3

Name the principle digestive organs of the ruminant in which digestion is carried out by microorganisms

-rumen
- reticulum
- omasum
- large intestine (colon)
- caecum (caecum)

4

What is the function of the duodenum

Receives partially digested food. Chemical digestion and absorption

5

What is the function of the jejunum

absorb nutrients from digested food into the bloodstream

6

What is the function of the ileum

Absorb vitamin B12, bile salts and food that was digested or absorbed in the jejunum

7

Name the anatomical features (structures) on the internal linings of the omasum

Laminae
Papillae

8

How does bile duct enter the small intestine?

Bile duct
Sphincter of odd

9

What are the two functional divisions of the pancreas

Endocrine
Exocrine

10

List the secretions of the pancreas which enter the small intestine to aid digestion

Release bicarbonate
Release digestive enzyme (amylase, trypsin and lipase)

11

What is the function of the bile

Allow digestion of dietary fat and oils by acting as surfactant that emulsifies them into micelles

12

What is the name of the serosa surrounding the liver

Hepatic serosa

13

What is the function of the liver?

Receives and processes blood from nutrients from intestines
Detoxification which converts ammonia to urea

14

What types of cells are present in the liver?

Kupffer cells
Hepatocytes

15

What are the features of the Kupffer cells

Remove bacteria from portal blood hepatocytes
Maintain blood glucose - removes toxins

16

What are the functions of the hind-gut in humans?

Absorb water and electrolytes
Ferments plants material

17

What are the seven features of a cat GI tract

Simple stomach increase protein
Large stomach
Simple gut
No caecum
Short large and small intestine
Low pH - high HCI (sterilise food and breakdown prey)
Sharp teeth

18

What does the porcine midgut consist of?

Small intestine
Caecum
ilieo caecum valve

19

What are the features of the porcine midgut?

Small intestine (long for enzymatic digestion)
villi - increase surface
Caecum = breakdown of cellulose

20

What are the adaptations of the porcine GI tract to its diet?

Large stomach + intestine
Long intestine
Caecum

21

What are the adaptations of the equine GI tract to its diet?

Small stomach = cont. eating
No gall bladder = doesn't require bile to be stored
Caecum = fermentation
Semi-colon and caecum = large

22

What happens to the carbohydrates in the rumen?

Cellulose digested to glucose which is fermented to volatile fatty acid

23

List the products of carbohydrate digestion

Acetate (ethanoic acid)
Propionate (propanic acid)
B- hydroxy butyrate

24

What happens to lipids in the rumen

Breakdown of complex lipids via lipolysis
Biohydrogeneration
De novo fatty acid synthesis

25

What is the function of the pyloric sphincter?

Controls the flow of partially digested food from the stomach to the small intestine

26

Compare and contrast foregut fermentation in the sheep with hind-gut fermenation in the horse

Ruminants have cellulose digestion before small intestine
Monogastric herbivores i.e. horse and rabbit cellulose digestion