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Flashcards in GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES OF PIGS Deck (43)
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1

Salivation (=Stomatitis diff dg):

1. INFECTIOUS: rabies!!! Viral diseases causing vesicles
2. NONINFECTIOUS– Physical-chemical causes
3. Bacterial diseases
4. Fungal diseases
5. Miscellaneous diseases

2

Viral diseases causing vesicles - INFECTIOUS

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)
Swine vesicular disease (SVD)
Vesicular exanthema of Swine (VES)
Vesicular Stomatitis (VS)
Rare, notifiable diseases

3

Physical-chemical causes – NON-INFECTIOUS

Heat effect, acid, alkalizers

4

Bacterial diseases

Necrobacillosis
-mostly in nursing piglets
-teeth reduction

Actinobacillosis

Stachybotryotoxicosis
-necrotic area in snout, mouth, nipples
-result of pigs eating hay, which is rare these days

Greasy Pig Disease S
-staphylococcus hyicus

5

Fungal diseases

Candida albicans
Stachybotris atra (toxin)

6

Miscellaneous diseases

Tonsillitis
Aujeszky’s disease
swine fever
anthrax
SVD – swine vesicular disease
Tonsil is the entry point in the body

Sialoadenitis
vitamin A deficiency
SVD – swine vesicular disease

7

Clinical signs

salivation, dysphagia
weight loss!!!!
Can select out the animals in a group that are thinner than the others

8

Treatment diseases in genreal

Can’t be performed in industrial pig keeping
-separation, treatment of the basic cause
Backyard farm individual treatment
-separation, diet, treatment of the basic disease

9

Pharyngeal pouch and oesophagus diseases :

Pharynx obstruction, perforation.
Pharyngeal paralysis – Lyssa!!!
Obstruction/perforation of the oesophagus .

10

Pharynx obstruction, perforation :

-Foreign bodies, iatrogenic effect
-Perioesophagealis phlegmone

11

Obstruction/perforation of the oesophagus

-Nutrition particles, bones, foreign bodies
-Treatment: emetics, endoscopy, surgery

12

Pharyngeal pouch obstruction

Sporadic disease in a herd
Per os antibiotics
Some animals lost weight after individual treatment
-Individual treatment with a drenching gun

13

Swine gastric diseases

1. Gastric dilatation
2. Gastric torsion
3. Foreign body in the stomach
4. Gastritis
5. Gastric ulceration

14

Gastric dilatation

Can be a result of over eating
Social rank, older or dominant push away young or submissive animals
Failure of dry matter intake
Feeding technology failures

15

Gastric torsion

Usually occur in sows
-Change in feeding
-restlessness
-a bad movement can cause it

if it stops the blood flow it can lead to death

16

Foreign body in the stomach

Backyard farming
Pasture kept sows – eat stones
Zootrichobezoar

17

Gastritis

-Inflammation of the stomach, either the whole stomach or the mucosal membranes .
-Chemical or physical causes
(Irritative agents, foreign body )

18

Uraemia

-Kidney insufficiency, kidney damage

19

Infectious diseases :

TGE – transmissible gastro enteritis – coronavirus
Salmonellosis
Fungal gastritis
Swine fever, ASF, köves disease
Oedematic disease – by clostridia
Parasitic disease – hyostrongylus rubidus

20

Causes of gastric ulceration

Any problems around nutrition and technology
Ph gradient decreases between cardi and fundus
Particle size of feed (<600-700 micro meter )
Heat damage of granulated feed
Vitamin E or zinc deficiency

Absence of dry matter intake, hunger :
Feed refusal
Systemic disease
Acute respiratory illnesses
Loss of appetite due to illness (Stress)
-Bacteria: helicobacter suis, fusobacterium
-Vomitoxin

21

Clinical signs of gastric ulcerations

Anemia
Decreased appetite, teeth grinding (Because of pain)
Melena
BCS loosing, sudden death (weight loss?)
-Arrodation or peritonitis can occur
-When fluid or blood leak into abdominal cavity
Regurgitation in case of healed ulcer
-Decreased function of GI tract

22

Treatment if gastric ulceration

Drugs used elsewhere usually has no evidential effect
In companion animals it can work, but not in far animals.

Off label for swine, withdrawal period is 6 month so it’s not possible to use it .
-H2 receptor antagonist – cimetidine, ranitidine
-Proton pump inhibitor – omeprazole
-Prostaglandin E
-Kaolin, pectines, sucralfate (Cover gastric mucosa, anti-irritant )
-U vitamin aka s methyl methionine
-Sunflower hull

23

Differential diagnosis of gastric ulceration

Ulcer as part of systemic infection
Erysipelas, streptococcus septicemia, salmonellosis

24

Diseases of the intestines in swine

1. Congenital disorder
2. Dislocation of the intestine
3. Herniation
4. Ileus
5. Dilatation of the intestine
6. Constipation
7. Enteritis

25

Congenital disorders

Atresia ani
-Due to failure of perforation of the membrane separating endometrial hindgut from ectodermal anal membrane
-Operable
-Other possibility: persistent merkels diverticulum (Usually euthanasia )

26

Dislocation of the intestine- Torsion of the intestine

- Abnormal peristalsis or content
o Abnormal large intestine fermentation
- Abnormal movements of the animal
- Adhesions, ligaments in the abdominal cavity
o Chronic peritonitis
- Differential diagnosis: haemorrhagic bowel syndrome

27

Prolapse of the rectum

- Genetic predisposition
- Result of Enhanced intestinal motility
o Enteritis, colitis
- Zearalenon mycotoxicosis
- Increased abdominal muscle contraction
o Pneumonia – coughing
o Urolithiasis in male
- Consequences
o Bleeding, cannibalism, stricture
 Out for a few days, others start to eat it and bleeding start

28

HERNIATION - The most common ones:

- Umbilical hernia
- Inguinal hernia
- Perineal hernia
- Usually not operated unless its not a companion pig
o Can have success in the field but its difficult

29

ILEUS

- Congenital disorder
- Obturation
- Compression
- Functional stenosis
o Paralytic ileus
- Stricture
o Congenital
o Acquired
 Abcess, haematom tumor, stria

30

DILATATION OF THE INTESTINES - Primary megacolon

- Lack of plexus myentericus (Auerbach)
o Hirschprungs disease