Flashcards in Gastric Phase of a Meal Deck (74)
What is often the cause of gastric ulcers?
Loss of the mucosal barrier
What is often NOT the cause of gastric ulcers?
Hypersecretion of acid
What is the function of H+ secretion in the stomach?
It kills microorganisms and it converts pepsinogen into pepsin
What is the function of intrinsic factor?
It is crucial for the absorption of Vitamin B12
What is a powerful paracrine stimulator of H+ secretion in the stomach?
What is the strongest regulation of stomach function?
Neural regulation - both intrinsic and extrinsic
What are some hormones involved in the endocrine regulation of the stomach?
What is the function of gastrin?
Stimulates gastric acid secretion
What is the function of somatostatin?
Inhibits gastric secretion
What is secreted in the stomach to protect against the acidity?
Mucus and HCO3-
When the stomach is not being emptied, what is the status of the pylorus?
What is the function of the distal stomach (antrum and pylorus)?
It is a thick muscular wall that is used for grinding and mixing the contents of the stomach
What is the function of the fundus and body of the stomach?
Reservoir and also provides a tonic force for emptying
What is the function of the cardia of the stomach?
Prevents esophageal reflux
What are the 3 regions of the stomach?
What is the orad stomach?
It is the proximal part closer to the mouth
What is the caudad stomach?
It is the distal part further away from the mouth
What are the gastric pits?
They are the openings where the gastric glands empty
What are the primary glands of the cardia?
Primarily mucus and HCO3- secreting gland cells, that provide mechanical and chemical protection of the gastric mucosa.
What are the primary glands of the fundus?
Oxyntic or parietal gland region
What are the primary glands of the antrum?
Pyloric gland region
What do parietal/oxyntic cells secrete?
What is the function of the HCl secreted by the parietal/oxyntic cells?
Kills bacteria, and allows activation of pepsin from pepsinogen, low pH for effective pepsin action.
What is the function of intrinsic factor secreted by the parietal/oxyntic cells?
It is an essential factor that allows for the absorption of Vitamin B12
What do mucus neck cells secrete?
What is the function of mucus secreted by mucus neck cells?
Protects the gastric mucosa
What do peptic/chief cells secrete?
Pepsinogens, which become active as pepsins in acidic environments
What do enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL) secrete?
Histamine - the most powerful stimulant of HCl secretion
What do D cells secrete?
Somatostatin - most powerful inhibitor of HCl secretion