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Flashcards in Fungi Deck (41)
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1

What is the main difference between fungal and bacterial cell walls?

Fungal cell wall--made of chitin
Bacterial cell wall--made of peptidoglycan

2

What are dimorphic fungi?

Fungi that are yeasts at 37C and molds at lower temperatures.

3

Circular, scaling lesion with central clearing and hair loss
Crumbling nails
Jock itch
Discoloring
Keratin
Ringworm
Azoles

Tinea

4

Malassezia furfur appearance

Spaghetti (short septae hyphae) and meatballs (small yeasts)

5

Gardener
Nodular lesions
Roses
Splinter
Thorn prick

Sporothrix schenckii

6

Cauliflower-like verrucous (warty) nodules
Dematiaceous (brown or black, melanin-producing) sclerotic bodies
Skin disease

Chromoblastomycosis

7

Cobblestones
Immunocompromised
Thrush
Vaginal yeast
White, curd-like, adhesive plaques that bleed when removed for culture
Prolonged use of antibiotics

Candida albicans

8

Allergic bronchopulmonary
Angioinvasive
Fruiting bodies
Fungus ball
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
Malt/grain workers
Septate branching hyphae

Aspergillus species

9

Acidotic diabetic
Black nasal discharge
Bread mold
Coenocyte (aseptate) hyphae
Paranasal sinus and ocular orbit involvement

Rhizopus and Mucor species

10

What are the main differences between systemic and opportunistic infection agents?

Systemic:
Disease often is asymptomatic or resolves quickly in both normal and compromised hosts
Endemic in limited geographic area
Usually not part of normal flora
Dimorphic (except Cryptococcus)

Opportunistic:
Disease often is serious primarily in compromised hosts
Found worldwide
Usually part of normal flora
Not dimorphic (except Candida)

11

AIDS patients
Cup shaped ("flying saucer")
Diffuse interstitial pneumonia
Fluffy, foamy alveolar exudate
Gomori silver stain
Ground-glass appearance on radiograph
IV drug abuser
Organisms in lavage lung

Pneumocystis jiroveci

12

Midwestern U.S. (Mississippi River Valley)
Eastern U.S. ; Central America
Rotting wood
Beaver dams
Broad-based budding yeast
Granuloma
Healthy and immunocompromised

Blastomyces dermatitidis

13

American southwest deserts
San Joaquin River Valley
Skin test for antigen exposure
Spherules
Desert bumps

Coccidioides immitis

14

AIDS patients
PIGEON DROPPINGS
Capsular antigens
Capsule
India ink preparations
Meningitis

Cryptococcus neoformans

15

YEASTS INSIDE MACROPHAGES
Caves
Bird and BAT droppings
"Cincinnati spleen"
Granulomas
Lung and spleen
Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys

Histoplasma capsulatum

16

35 y/o man has a URI. His sputum is blood stained. A chest radiograph shows a ball-like mass of fungal hyphae in an apical cavity.

Aspergillus species
"Ball-like mass of fungal hyphae" = aspergilloma

17

An otherwise healthy man who had successfully recovered from a URI marked by fever, cough, and chest pain 3 months ago now develops several chronic suppurative skin lesions. A chest radiograph shows pulmonary infiltrates.

Systemic blastomycosis
Blastomyces dermatitidis

18

An HIV-positive man has white patches on the tongue.

Oral thrush
Candida albicans

19

A 39 y/o woman who has diabetes is being treated with abx for a bacterial infection. She develops vaginal pruritus, erythema, and a thick, creamy vaginal discharge.

Yeast infection
Candida albicans

20

After vacationing in the desert areas of New Mexico, a 40 y/o woman develops a URI with pulmonary infiltrates and has red, nodular, painful lesions on both shins.

Coccidioides immitis

21

An immunosuppressed woman has a chronic headache and stiff neck. India ink preparation of CSF shows encapsulated yeast cells.

Cryptococcal meningitis
Cryptococcus neoformans

22

A chicken farmer living in southern Ohio has a mild respiratory infection with flu-like symptoms that resolve within 10 days. Two months later, numerous diffuse, small calcific densities are seen on chest radiograph.

Histoplasma capsulatum

23

A diabetic patient in ketoacidosis has a frontal lobe abscess.

Mucor species

24

An AIDS patient with a low CD4 cell count has a respiratory infection with fever, cough, SOB, and pulmonary infiltrates.

Pneumocystitis jiroveci

25

A woman develops suppurating, nodular skin lesions on the lower arm after pruning rose bushes in her garden.

Sporothrix schenkii

26

What is the most virulent agent of systemic fungal infection?

Coccidioides immitis

27

Rural Latin America
Budding yeast cells ("steering wheels")

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

28

Which fungi are dimorphic?

Blastomyces dermatitidis
Coccidioides immitis
Histoplasma capsulatum
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
Sporothrix schenckii
Candida albicans

29

Which fungi are opportunistic?

Aspergillus fumigatus
Candida albicans
Mucor and Rhizopus species
Pneumocystis jiroveci
Cryptococus neoformans

30

Which fungi are systemic?

Coccidioides immitis
Histoplasma capsulatum
Blastomyces dermatitidis
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis