Flashcards in Function Tests/Therapeutic Drug Monitoring/Mycology/Microbiology Deck (242)
Why are organ function tests performed?
1) To ensure the organ is working correctly
2) To pinpoint a specific problem and treat the diagnosis properly
3) Incite an organ to demonstrate their ability to function
4) They help the clinician to diagnose by revealing abnormalities that are hidden or disguised in other clinical data
What causes icterus?
What organ is impaired when bilirubin is elevated?
Top tube for plasma chemistrys anticoagulant. How long can you wait for it to be tested?
heparin, up to 12 hours
Why are enzymes low in blood?
because they are intracellular
What is Azotemia and what's the difference between uremia?
increase in BUN, uremia has clinical signs Azotemia does not
What 2 electrons are falsely elevated with hemalysis?
potassium and phosphorus
What enzyme hydrolysis's lipids?
2 enzymes associated with liver disease?
Are the reference range values the same throughout the world? Why?
no, different climates and breeds throughout the world
the 2 parameters that determine reference ranges are ____ and ____
species and age
Why does ALKP appear elevated, but is not abnormal in young animals?
because it's in osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Why is it important to separate glucose?
it decreases 10% every hour
What enzyme is in striated muscle?
Sample for fibrinogen assay?
Calcium is inversely related to?
What sample uses arterial blood?
What enzyme detects cholestasis?
three categories/locations in elevated BUN.
prerenal, renal, postrenal
What's A:G and what does it indicate?
albumin to globulin, protein abnormality
If fresh feces is not used for a trypsin test what happens to the sample?
Name 2 functions of an electrolyte.
1) acid-base regulation
2) maintenance of water balanace
What is glucagon responsible for and where is it produced?
elevates blood glucose, pancreas
Where do you find test protocols?
reference manual in the lab
Explain the two methods to measure Trypsin.
1) Test tube method: is performed by mixing fresh feces w/ a gelatin solution in a test tube.
The gelatin contains protein which reacts with trypsin and will catabolize the protein and the solution will stay homogenous.
If trypsin is absent, the solution becomes a gel.
2) The x-ray film test: uses the same principle but uses the gelatin coating on undeveloped x-ray film.
Fresh feces are mixed w/ bicarbonate soln to a slurry & a strip of undeveloped x-ray film is placed in the slurry. If trypsin is present in the feces, the gelatin coating will be removed from the x-ray film after rinsing w/ water. No change in the gelatin coating is an abnormal test-trypsin is NOT present in the sample.
For the following tests: know what organ is tested, what an abnormal result reveals or why the test is performed, any special requirements for sampling: Sulfobromophthalein (BSP) Clearance
1) Liver function test, BSP is a dye that when injected intravenously, is retrieved & conjugated by the liver, & excreted in the bile.
2) This is a sensitive hepatic function test especially useful for detecting chronic lesions in the liver & portosystemic shunts that do not cause leakage of the liver enzymes.
3) Perivascular dye injection causes major sloughing(seemingly delayed BSP clearance)
4) Also, poor hepatic perfusion (due to shock, heart failure, or dehydration), fever & ascites interferes w/ BSP clearance
BSP clearance time can be increased by what 2 things?
2) phenobarbital use
What is produced in GI tract by intestinal flora when amino acids and urea are broken down
For the Ammonia Tolerance Test, what top tube us used for blood collection?
blood collected in ammonia-free heparin