Flashcards in Forensic Final Exam Deck (47)
What are the three timeframes of trauma?
Antemortem: evidence of healing; Perimortem: no or little healing but bone exhibits a "green" response; Postmortem: dry rough fracture margins often showing different coloration.
Name three types of trauma
Blunt force trauma, sharp force trauma, projectile trauma
Describe blunt force trauma
Depression fractures with sharp or defined edges, radiating fractures fall on flat surfaces.
Describe sharp force trauma
cut wounds (longer on surface than it is deep), stab wounds (deeper than it is long), defense wounds (typically found on the hands or arms).
Describe beveling for gunshot entrance/exit wounds
Entrance wounds will exhibit internal beveling and exit wounds will exhibit external beveling
Describe some different loading forces bones may experience
Compression forces (normal for long bones); shear forces (from crushing blows), torsion forces (resulting in spiral fractures), tension and compression together result in butterfly fractures
Sometimes bullets do not actually cause wounds
Rather the shockwave of air displacement does
Describe the donated body program of the FAC
3 donations per year from 1981-84; 36 per year from 1998-2001; 127 donations in 2009; total of 1,200 individuals in the collection
What information is collected on individuals in the donated body program at the FAC?
name, DOB, place of birth, date and COD, sex, ancestry, stature, weight, photographs, hair and eye color, handedness, number of children, blood type, lifelong occupation, medical histories, any tattoos.
What research is conducted at the FAC?
general decomposition changes in buried vs. embalmed bodies, decomposition on bullets and bullet types.
Describe Freedman's Ranch
This Texas State Facility houses about 5 acres
How large is the FAC?
About 2.3 acres
How is time since death determined
Forensic entomology, soil analysis, tissue/fluid analysis, experience, number of leaf falls, body appearance, carnivore activity
What are some factors that affect decomposition?
Exposure (inside vs. outside), trauma, blood, clothing (slows decomposition by limiting insect access), surface vs. buried, temperature, scavenger presence
What are some environmental factors that affect decomposition?
Temperature, humidity, sunlight vs. shade, covering, insect access.
What are the stages of decomposition?
Fresh (autolysis), bloat (putrefaction), decay (putrefaction and carnivores), dry (diagenesis).
What changes occur throughout the stages of decomposition?
Early: initial soft tissue changes; Mid: initial skeletonization; Late: bone weathering
Describe 3 blade configurations, 3 blade actions, 2 grip types, and 3 target types from Levi's lecture
blade: standard smooth, serrated, combination; actions: stab, thrust, slash; grip: forward/extended or reverse/ice-pick; targets: systemic, structural, peripheral.
Describe two types of pathology
Congenital and acquired
What are some categories of acquired pathologies
Degenerative processes, dental disease, infectious and inflammatory, metabolic, traumatic, tumors.
Name some congenital defects:
Cleft palate, dislocations, polydacyly, bifid ribs, spina bifida, spondylosis, dwarfism, scoliosis, cranial suture problems (brachiocephaly, scaphocephaly, anacephaly, craiostenosis).
Degenerative disorders may result in
the fusion of the vertebrae, fusion of the ribs to the sternum, hip fusion.
Name some forms of dental disease
caries, dental wear/attrition, tooth loss, tooth abnormalities, supernumerary teeth
name two nutritional diseases
Probably the most common pathological condition and usually involves the destruction of the hyaline cartilage at joint surfaces and imbalances in mechanical stress which result in pitting, erosion, lipping, and eburnation.
What is the context in a forensic field site?
Establishing the relationship of human remains to the physical evidence
What are some discovery methods used in forensic field sites?
systematic pattern search, grid, linear, or spiral searches burial probing and cadaver dogs. Metal detectors, ground penetrating radar, soil resistivity/gradiometer, aerial/infrared photography, LIDAR, gas detectors.
In surface scatter documentation a ___ is essential
What are some criteria used for positive identification?
visual, fingerprint, DNA (mt or nuclear DNA), dental radiographs/charts, skeletal radiographs (dental patterns, frontal sinus patterns, past fractures, etc.),