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Flashcards in Forensic Final Exam Deck (47)
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1

What are the three timeframes of trauma?

Antemortem: evidence of healing; Perimortem: no or little healing but bone exhibits a "green" response; Postmortem: dry rough fracture margins often showing different coloration.

2

Name three types of trauma

Blunt force trauma, sharp force trauma, projectile trauma

3

Describe blunt force trauma

Depression fractures with sharp or defined edges, radiating fractures fall on flat surfaces.

4

Describe sharp force trauma

cut wounds (longer on surface than it is deep), stab wounds (deeper than it is long), defense wounds (typically found on the hands or arms).

5

Describe beveling for gunshot entrance/exit wounds

Entrance wounds will exhibit internal beveling and exit wounds will exhibit external beveling

6

Describe some different loading forces bones may experience

Compression forces (normal for long bones); shear forces (from crushing blows), torsion forces (resulting in spiral fractures), tension and compression together result in butterfly fractures

7

Sometimes bullets do not actually cause wounds

Rather the shockwave of air displacement does

8

Describe the donated body program of the FAC

3 donations per year from 1981-84; 36 per year from 1998-2001; 127 donations in 2009; total of 1,200 individuals in the collection

9

What information is collected on individuals in the donated body program at the FAC?

name, DOB, place of birth, date and COD, sex, ancestry, stature, weight, photographs, hair and eye color, handedness, number of children, blood type, lifelong occupation, medical histories, any tattoos.

10

What research is conducted at the FAC?

general decomposition changes in buried vs. embalmed bodies, decomposition on bullets and bullet types.

11

Describe Freedman's Ranch

This Texas State Facility houses about 5 acres

12

How large is the FAC?

About 2.3 acres

13

How is time since death determined

Forensic entomology, soil analysis, tissue/fluid analysis, experience, number of leaf falls, body appearance, carnivore activity

14

What are some factors that affect decomposition?

Exposure (inside vs. outside), trauma, blood, clothing (slows decomposition by limiting insect access), surface vs. buried, temperature, scavenger presence

15

What are some environmental factors that affect decomposition?

Temperature, humidity, sunlight vs. shade, covering, insect access.

16

What are the stages of decomposition?

Fresh (autolysis), bloat (putrefaction), decay (putrefaction and carnivores), dry (diagenesis).

17

What changes occur throughout the stages of decomposition?

Early: initial soft tissue changes; Mid: initial skeletonization; Late: bone weathering

18

Describe 3 blade configurations, 3 blade actions, 2 grip types, and 3 target types from Levi's lecture

blade: standard smooth, serrated, combination; actions: stab, thrust, slash; grip: forward/extended or reverse/ice-pick; targets: systemic, structural, peripheral.

19

Describe two types of pathology

Congenital and acquired

20

What are some categories of acquired pathologies

Degenerative processes, dental disease, infectious and inflammatory, metabolic, traumatic, tumors.

21

Name some congenital defects:

Cleft palate, dislocations, polydacyly, bifid ribs, spina bifida, spondylosis, dwarfism, scoliosis, cranial suture problems (brachiocephaly, scaphocephaly, anacephaly, craiostenosis).

22

Degenerative disorders may result in

the fusion of the vertebrae, fusion of the ribs to the sternum, hip fusion.

23

Name some forms of dental disease

caries, dental wear/attrition, tooth loss, tooth abnormalities, supernumerary teeth

24

name two nutritional diseases

scurvy, rickets

25

Describe osteoarthritis

Probably the most common pathological condition and usually involves the destruction of the hyaline cartilage at joint surfaces and imbalances in mechanical stress which result in pitting, erosion, lipping, and eburnation.

26

What is the context in a forensic field site?

Establishing the relationship of human remains to the physical evidence

27

What are some discovery methods used in forensic field sites?

systematic pattern search, grid, linear, or spiral searches burial probing and cadaver dogs. Metal detectors, ground penetrating radar, soil resistivity/gradiometer, aerial/infrared photography, LIDAR, gas detectors.

28

In surface scatter documentation a ___ is essential

datum

29

What are some criteria used for positive identification?

visual, fingerprint, DNA (mt or nuclear DNA), dental radiographs/charts, skeletal radiographs (dental patterns, frontal sinus patterns, past fractures, etc.),

30

What rule requires that scientific standards are applied to forensic data presented in a legal context?

Federal Rule 702: the Daubert Rule from Daubert v. Merrell-Dow Pharmaceuticals