Flashcards in Foodborne Dz: Intro Deck (49)
Where are foodborne diseases a burden?
What is a major cause of malnutrition in infants and young children, which can be a symptom of foodborne illnesses?
Most cases of foodborne dz are ______
*these are seldom reported
What infection pattern of foodborne illnesses is more likely to recognized?
What do the number and severity of cases depend upon?
Type of microbe: pathogenicity and virulence
Effectiveness of processing methods to reduce microbes
Handling of food on the consumer/cooking end
What is the most severe class of food recalls?
Type 1: Means the pathogen has a serious morbidity rate +/- mortality
Have to shut down the plant and follow the distribution of all the food that went out
What kind of foodborne illnesses get categorized as Type 2 recalls?
Temporary and or reversible illnesses
What constitutes a Type 3 recall?
Pathogen is not likely to cause effects, but recall is put in to play just in case
What is the definition of a foodborne illness?
Diseases usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food
*there are over 250 causes of foodborne dz in people
What is the definition of a foodborne illness outbreak?
The occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common food
*sometimes only one sick person can constitute an outbreak - when the pathogen is dangerous enough (listeria, botulism, chemical poisoning)
What is a foodborne hazard?
A biological, chemical, or physical, property that may cause an unacceptable health risk to the consumer
What are some examples of physical foodborne hazards?
Needles, broken pieces of machinery etc
What are some examples of chemical foodborne hazards?
Toxins: Biological, chemical, or heavy metals
*drug residues, dioxin, lead
What are some examples of biological foodborne hazards?
Microbial pathogens: bacteria/viruses
T/F: Most reported cases of foodborne agents are unidentified or unspecified
What are the top 5 pathogens cause domestically acquired foodborne illness? From highest to lowest incidence
What are the top five pathogens causing domestically acquired foodborne illness resulting in hospitalization? From highest to lowest incidence
E. coli O157
What are the top 5 pathogens causing domestically acquired foodborne illness resulting in death? From highest to lowest incidence
What are the components of the food production chain? During which process may food become contaminated?
**contamination can take place during any of these steps
What are the food contamination risks during the production phase of the food production chain?
Growing or raising livestock (Ex. many feedlot cattle have E.coli O157 that we can't get rid of / eggs can be infected with salmonella in-utero)
Caught or harvested food from the wild (can't prevent pathogens in wild fish, game, mushrooms etc)
What is the biggest risk of foodborne illness exposure in the processing step of the food production chain?
During distribution in the food production chain, what problem may occur that can increase the risk of foodborne illness?
There may be one or many steps in getting food from the slaughtering plant to the processing plant to wholesale distributor to a restaurant (leaves a lot of room for error)
T/F: Cross contamination is the most common factor of foodborne illness during the preparation phase fo the food production chain
Can occur in a restaurant, home, institution
What is the difference between food safety and food quality?
Safety = making sure food is safe - relates to all hazards that make food injurious to health. Prevent hazards from entering the food chain. Remove hazard containing foods, remove/neutralize/reduce hazards in food
Quality = all other attributes that affect a products value. Ex - flavor, tenderness, color, spoilage, etc
What are the two (broad) categories of food safety?
Pre harvest: Birth until stunning at slaughter or up to milking/laying eggs
Post harvest: Stunning to consumption or Milking/laying to consumption
In what food safety category do zoonotic pathogens fall?
*most foodborn pathogens are zoonotic and most pathogens enter the food chain in the animals
What are the two main pre-harvest food safety components for food originating from livestock or poultry?
1. on farm food safety: Produce healthy, pathogen free livestock
2. Antemortem inspection at the slaughter plants: ensure only healthy animals enter the food chain
Who plays an essential role in "on farm food safety"?
Food animal veterinarians
Aim is to reduce the pathogen load in animals before they go to processing
What are the components of On Farm Food Safety (OFFS)?
1. herd/flock health programs
2. Biosecurity/feed security
3.Appropriate antimicrobial use
4. animal welfare = low stress