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NCLEX-RN (1) Fundamentals > Fluids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fluids Deck (23)
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1

What is the:

1) function of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)

2) what is it controlled by?

3) what does it regulate?

​ADH:

  1. function: to hold onto water only
  2. controlled by: posterior pituitary and kidneys
  3. regulates: blood pressure

2

What is the:

1) function of aldosterone?

2) what is it controlled by?

3) what does it regulate?

Aldosterone is a steroid hormone:

  1. function: to hold onto sodium and water
  2. controlled by: adrenals (on top of kidneys)
  3. regulates: blood pressure

3

What are the cascade of hormones that go into effect with low blood pressure which then helps the body hold onto fluid and increase the blood pressure?

 

The cascade of hormones that help the body hold onto fluids are:

  1. renin: kidneys release this when it senses low blood pressure
  2. angiotensin 1: then the liver releases this hormone
  3. angiotensin 2: then the lungs release this hormone
  4. aldosterone: then the adrenals release this hormone, which helps the kidneys hold onto sodium and water causing an increase in blood pressure.

4

What are atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)?

ANP and BNP are two hormones released by the heart when the heart tissue is stretched due to fluid volume overload.

They both help the body to get rid of extra fluids.

 

5

What is the difference between intravascular, intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments?

  • intravascular (or vascular): are all the fluids in the blood vessels
  • intracellular: are all the fluids in the cells
  • extracellular (or third space): are all the fluids outside the cells

6

What is third-spacing?

Third-spacing is a type of edema:

  • It is extracellular fluid that has leaked out of the vessels and into the tissues due to a disease or injury

This fluid shift can cause fluid volume deficit.

7

What is central venous pressure and what does it indicate when it's high and low?

CVP is blood pressure in the vena cava, which is blood returning to the heart right near the right atrium. It is used to determine the severity of heart failure.

  • increased CVP: high blood pressure and too much fluid in the body
  • decreased CVP: low blood pressure and not enough fluid in the body
     

8

What is fluid volume overload (FVO) and what are 2 basic causes of it?

 

Fluid volume overload is when there is too much fluid in the vascular space. It is caused by:

  1. holding onto fluids or
  2. not getting rid of fluids

Overhydration and hypervolemia are other words for FVO.

9

What are the most common diseases that cause fluid volume overload from holding onto fluids?

Diseases that cause FVO (the body to hold onto fluids):

  1. Heart failure: the heart can't pump the extra fluids through
  2. Cirrhosis: the liver can't make proteins, causing fluids to leak out of the vascular space and into the third space
  3. Cushing's: there are too many steroids and steroids hold onto fluids

10

What is the most common disease that causes fluid volume overload from the body not getting rid of fluid?

Chronic kidney failure: the kidneys no longer work, so the body doesn't get rid of the fluids.

11

What are two common situations of a client getting too much fluid intake and making fluid volume overload complications worse?

FVO overload can be made worse by:

  1. the client eats salty food which causes thirst and fluid intake
  2. the client receives too much IV fluids

12

What are the vital signs with fluid volume overload and why do they occur?

FVO vital signs:

  • ↑ blood pressure: more fluid volume causes increased pressure
  • ↑ heart rate: heart works extra hard to push fluids through
  • bounding pulse: more fluid volume stretches the vessels

13

Which way do the labs go with fluid volume overload?

  • hematocrit
  • BUN
  • serum osmolality
  • sodium
  • urine specific gravity

FVO labs:

  • ↓ hematocrit: also called hemodilution
  • ↓ BUN
  • ↓ serum osmolality: ↓ electrolytes and sugar in the blood
  • ↓ sodium
  • ↓ urine specific gravity: ↓ particles in the urine

Everything is diluted in the blood or urine due to the extra fluids.

14

What are the signs and symptoms of fluid volume overload?

Signs and symptoms of FVO:

  • cardiac: distended veins, dysrhythmias, ↑CVP
  • respiratory: increased and shallow respirations, dyspnea, moist crackles
  • renal: decreased or increased urine output (depends on cause)
  • skin: edema, pale and cool skin
  • gastrointestinal: diarrhea, increased weight
  • neuro & muscular: confusion, muscle weakness

The body has too many fluids in it and electrolytes can also become imbalanced.

15

What are the most common interventions to treat fluid volume overload?

Interventions for FVO:

  • Always treat the "cause" first
  • fluid restrictions
  • diuretics: meds that cause urination
  • possible dialysis: if there is chronic kidney disease
  • monitor intake and output

16

What is fluid volume deficit (FVD) and what are 2 basic causes of it?

Fluid volume deficit is when there is not enough fluid in the vascular space. It is caused by:

  1. not enough fluid intake by mouth or IV
  2. getting rid of too many fluids

Dehydration and hypovolemia are other words for FVD.

 

 

17

What are the most common causes of fluid volume deficit from getting rid of too many fluids?

Causes of FVD:

  • vomiting
  • polyuria
  • diarrhea or laxative overuse
  • drainage from fistulas (abnormal openings)
  • drainage from tubes
  • excessive sweating
  • hemorrhage
  • burns

18

What are two ways the kidneys can cause fluid volume deficit?

Kidneys causes of FVD:

  1. too many diuretics: the client urinates too much
  2. Addison's disease: the client doesn't have enough steroids. Without enough steroids, the client won't be able to hold onto fluids.

 

19

What are the vital signs with fluid volume deficit and why do they occur?

FVD vital signs:

  • ↓ blood pressure: less fluid volume causes decreased pressure
    • orthostatic hypotension
  • ↑ heart rate: less fluid means less oxygen; the heart works extra hard to get oxygen to the vital organs
  • weak and thready pulse: less fluid volume in the vessels
  • ↑ temperature: due to loss of fluids cooling the body down

20

Which way do the following labs go with fluid volume deficit?

  • hematocrit
  • BUN
  • serum osmolality
  • sodium
  • urine specific gravity

FVD labs:

  • ↑ hematocrit: also called hemoconcentration
  • ↑ BUN
  • ↑ serum osmolality: ↑ electrolytes and sugar in the blood
  • ↑ sodium
  • ↑ urine specific gravity: ↑ particles in the urine

Everything is concentrated in the blood or urine due to the decreased fluids.

21

What are the signs and symptoms of fluid volume deficit?

Signs and symptoms of FVD:

  • cardiac: flat veins, dysrhythmias, ↓CVP
  • respiratory: increased rate and depth of respirations, dyspnea
  • renal: decreased urine output, dark-yellow urine
  • skin: poor skin turgor
  • gastrointestinal: constipation, decreased weight
  • neuro & muscular: confusion, muscle weakness

The body doesn't have enough fluids in it and electrolytes can also become imbalanced.

22

What are the most common interventions to treat fluid volume deficit?

Interventions for FVD:

  • Always treat the "cause" first
  • Increase fluid intake (especially IV fluids)
  • monitor intake and output

23

How are intake and output monitored?

Monitor intake and output by:

  • weighing the client daily at the same time
  • measuring the urine output
    • client may get a foley
  • measuring amount of fluids ingested by mouth or IV fluids
  • estimating fluid loss by sweating, breathing and bowel movements