Fluid and Electrolyte / Acid-Base Balance Flashcards Preview

NRSG L1 1010 > Fluid and Electrolyte / Acid-Base Balance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fluid and Electrolyte / Acid-Base Balance Deck (37)
Loading flashcards...
1

Normal fluid intake is..?

1100-1400 mL

2

Homeostasis

The bodies ability to keep its internal environment balanced; and is ability to correct itself when balance is not met.

3

Normal sodium (Na+) levels

136-145 mEq/L (mmol/L)

4

Normal potassium (K+) levels

3.5-5.0 mEq/L (mmol/L)

5

Normal calcium (Ca++) levels

8.4-10.5 mg/dL

6

Normal magnesium (Mg++) levels

1.5-2.5 mEq/L

7

Diffusion

Molecules move from higher concentration>lower concentration until equilibrium is met.

8

Filtration

Distributes ECF between interstitial and vascular spaces through a membrane via hydrostatic pressure

9

Osmosis

Distributes H2O between ECF and cells through a semi-permiable membrane.

10

Hydrostatic pressure

Pressure that pushes fluid out of its compartment or capillaries.

11

Output>input (>greater than)

Not enough H2O consumption
Using diuretics
Sweating too much
vomiting/diarrhea
Hemorrhage
Burns
Adrenal insufficiency (addisons)
Tube feed with out fluids
Diabetes

12

Output

Renal insufficiency/kidney disease
Too much IV fluids
Excess aldosterone
Cirrhosis (liver damage)
Corticosteroid use
Cushing's disease (^cortisol levels)
Too much H2O intake
Tap-water enemas
Too much salty foods/fluids

13

Altered distribution

-Acute ascites (liver failure)
-Intestinal obstruction
-Distribution into 3rd space (peritoneal cavity)

14

What do we asses for in Flui. and Elec. imbalance?

Health history
Diagnostic and lab tests
Psychical assessment ( daily weight, VS, I and O, thirst, skin, oral cavity, eyes, jugular and hand veins, neuromuscular systems)

15

ECV deficit

Too little volume:
Weight loss
Skin tenting
Dry mucous membranes
Rapid thready pulse
BP drop
Lightheadedness
Flat neck veins
Oligurea
Syncope/ shock

16

ECV excess

Too much volume:
Weight gain
Edema
Bounding pulse
Distended neck veins
Dyspnea

17

Hypronatremia

Na+ less than (

18

Hypernatremia

Na+ greater than (>) 145 mEq/L:
Impaired cerebral function
Thirst
Decreases LOC
Seizures

19

Hypokalemia

K+

20

Hyperkalemia

K+ >5.0 mEq/L:
Bilateral muscle weakness
Cardiac dysrythmias
Cardiac arrest

21

Hypocalcemia

Ca++

22

Hypercalcemia

Ca++ >11 mg/dL:
Decreased neuromuscular excitability
Anorexia
Nausea
Constipation
Muscle weakness
Diminished reflexes
Decreased LOC
Cardiac dysrythmias

23

Hypomagnesemia

Mg++

24

Hypermagnesemia

Mg++ >2.5 mEq/L:
Decreased neuromuscular excitability
Flushing
Diaphoresis (sweating)
Diminished reflexes
Decreased LOC
Muscle weakness
Respiratory depression
Bradycardia
Cardiac dysrythmias

25

Interrelated concepts of Flui. and Elec. Balance

Nutrition
Mobility
Cognition
Perfusion
Gas exchange
Acid-base balance
Elimination

26

Acid-Base Balance is..?

Process of regulating pH, bicarbonate concentration and partial pressure of of CO2 on body fluids.

27

Normal pH range

7.35-7.45
7.45= alkalotic

28

How is acid removed from the body?

Via respiratory and renal processes

29

What changes in flui. and elec. cause change in pH?

Diarrhea
Vomiting

30

What changes in pH cause change in flui. and elec.?

Hyperventilation