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What is a political issue?

Any question that deals with how power is distributed and how it operates within social organization, and how people think about, and engage in, their communities and the wider world on matters that affect their lives


What is power?

The ability to make others do what they would otherwise not do


What is politics?

Social science which studies the way corporations, media, citizens, politicians & ideologies interact in the national & global political arenas


Which are the three core assumptions of realism?

-Sovereign states are the only actors that matter
-States are unitary and rational
-The international system is anarchic


What is sovereignty?

A state's independent control over its territory & its ability to govern itself


Which are the four theories of realism?

-Classical realism
-Structural realism
-Neoclassical realism
-Rise & fall realism


What does classical realism argue?

The will to dominate & the desire for more power are rotted in the flawed nature of humanity.
States are the reflection of the people within the state


What does structural realism argue?

The quest for power isn't related to human nature, but the international system.
All states are functionally alike, with different capabilities


What does neoclassical realism argue?

Combines classical and structural realism.

Recognizes systemic forces & looks at domestic factors; states often underbalance


What does rise & fall realism argue?

The rules and practices of the international system are determined by the wishes of the leading state.
More stability when there is one, big, powerful leader


Which are the two types of structural realism?

Offensive & defensive


What does defensive structural realism state?

The pursuit of hegemony is foolish.

If a state becomes too powerful, it needs balance.


What does offensive structural realism state?

It is rational to pursue hegemony.

Balancing is inefficient


What is cooperation?

When actors adjust their behavior to the actual or anticipated preferences of others


Which are the four liberal areas of critique against realism?

-States are not unitary
-States are not rational
-Gains are relative
-Military forces are the core of international politics


Which are some of the ideals for liberalism?

-Domestic affairs do matter
-Foreign policy is not automatic and depends on internal battles
-Security isn't always the top priority
-International organizations and law are important
-States should cooperate with each other, for benefit (positive-sum game)
-Bilateral or multilateral negotiations


What does Kantian liberalism state?

-A state is not a piece of property - society of men
-Constitutional republic
-Armies should be abolished - competition
-No state should interfere with other state


What are the definitive articles for Kantian liberalism?

1. The civil constitution of every state should be republican
2. The law of nations shall be founded on a federation of free states
3. The Law of World citizenship shall be limited to conditions of universal hospitality


What does commercial liberalism state?

-Opposes mercantilism
-Trade among states promotes tolerance and cordial relations - leads to peace
-Solution: limit the power of government to impose trade restraints


What does the democratic peace theory state?

Democracies do not engage in conflict with other democracies


What does neoliberal institutionalism state?

-Evidence of tit-for-tat: do something for me today, I'll do something for you tomorrow
-States are the key but not the only factors
-States are rational
-Economic gains are a fundamental concern


What is hegemony?

Leadership or dominance, especially by one country or social group over others.


According to Joan Scott, what is gender?

A constitutive element of social relationships based on perceived differences between the sexes, and gender is a primary way of
signifying relationships of power