Flashcards in First Month Hebrew Deck (23)
What are the two kinds of syllables in Hebrew?
1. There are open syllables, made up of a consonant and a vowel, שָׁ
2. There are closed syllables, made up of a consonant + a vowel + a consonant, לַח
What are the two characteristics of Hebrew syllables?
1. A syllable may not begin with a vowel
2. The last syllable is usually the accented syllable.
What is a sheva?
Vowel sign written as two vertical dots (:) under a letter.
What are the two types of shevas?
1. Vocal Sheva - very short "e"
2. Silent Sheva - not pronounced, used to close a syllable
How do you know how to divide the words into syllables?
• If the next consonant has its own vowel, it cannot end a syllable
• If it has a vocal sheva, it will be its own syllable
• If it has a silent sheva, it is the end of the syllable.
How do you distinguish between the vocal and the silent sheva?
If a short vowel comes before the consonant under which there is a sheva, the sheva is silent.
What are the two applications for the shevas?
1. If the sheva is under the first consonant of a word, it is vocal.
2. If there are two shevas in a row, the first is silent and the second vocal.
What is the strong dagesh and what is its purpose?
A dot similar to the weak dagesh, but it serves to double a consonant.
(like the English word, meanness)
How can you differentiate between the weak and strong dagesh?
1. If a dagesh is in a consonant other than the begadkefat, it is strong.
2. If a dagesh is in a begadkefat, it may be weak or strong.
o If it is the first sound of the word, it is weak.
o If the sound before the begadkefat is a consonant, the dagesh is weak
o But if it is a vowel, it will be strong
Guttural characteristic #1
Gutturals and resh will not have either weak or strong dagesh.
What happens when a word ends in ה?
The ה is a vowel letter and it is silent.
dagesh forte (strong)
A dot placed within a consonant (except laryngeals and resh) to double letter
dagesh lene (weak)
a dot placed within the begadkepat to pronounce as stop
Four vowel letters
aleph, hey, waw, yod
א ה ן י
ב נ ד כ פ ת
a patah placed/pronounced immediately before a final laryngeal when that laryngeal is preceded by an i or u class vowel
sounds produced in larynx/gutterals
א ה ח ע
a dot placed with a final ה to indicate consonant
a horizontal line between words to connect into one accentual unit
diacritical marking after the last word of a verse (:)
verticle stroke to the left of a vowel to indicate secondary stress on the syllable or on another maqqeph
"S" letters ז ם צ ש ש