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What is the max concentrating ability of the Kidney?

1200 mosmol/L


How much mandatory waste does the body produce?

600 mosmol/l


What is the problem with drinking seawater?

It is 2400 mosmol/L and that would require you to excrete 2 L of liquid per each L you drink which dehydrates you. Also the MgSO4 creates urther problems. The magnesium does not allow the absorption of what which gives you the diareaha and dehydrates you further.


Which cell produces acid?

Parietal Cell


Where are Parietal Cells Located?

GI mucosa


What are the main drivers for acid secretion?

Parasympathetic Nervous System, Gastrin, Histamine, cAMP.


WHat is the equation for production of acid?

CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 (Carbonic Acid) = H+ HCO3-


From the equation of production of acid where is the proton pumped?

It is pumped into the GI lumen.


Whatis the strong acid in the stomach? What combines with the H+ molecule to form it?

HCl. Cl-.


Where does the Cl- come from in order to make stomach acid?

The chloride shift


_______ is exchanged into blood plasma for Cl- into the __________.

HCO3- Parietal Cell


Name 5 important GI hormones that help to regulate digestion.

Gastrin, GIP, Secretin, CCK, PZ


Where is Gastrin secreted from and what does it do?

Secreted from endothelial cells (G cells) in the stomach. It increases GI motility and stomach acid production.


Where is GIP secreted and what does it do?

GIP is secreted from the Small Intestine. It opposes the action of gastrin, it decreases the GI motility, and it decreases stomach acid production. The allowsthe small intestine time to digest and absorb nutrients.


Where is Secretin secreted and what does it do?

Secretin is secreted from the Small Intestine. Secretin increases the alkaline pH juice from pancreas, neutralizing the acid from the stomach chime.


Where is CCK secreted and what does it do?

CCK is secreted from the Small Intestine and it increases the gallbladder contraction and secretion of bile to emulsify fats.


Where is PZ secreted and what does it do?

PZ is secreted from SI. It ubcreases enzyme secretion from pancreas , trypsin, lipase, amylase.


What is Motilin responsible for?

Motilin is responsible for stimulating MMC (Migrating Motor Complex) otherwise known as peristalsis.


Explain the livers role with plasma glucose maintenance.

Liver has a 24 hour storage place for glycogen which is where the supply for blood comes from in periods between meals.


Explain the Livers role with cholesterol homeostasis.

Through action of HMG CoA reductase, manufacture cholestarol (needed for cell membranes) from fats...........Blocking this process if how Statin drugs work to lower blood cholestarol.


Explain the livers role with red blood cell homeostasis.

Kupffer cells in the liver sinusoid break down the old red blood cells. The product from breaking down hemoglobin is Bilirubin which is then released in the blood stream. Hepatocytes take billirubin and reprocess that into Bile for fat emulsification.


Explain livers role in digestion.

Bile that is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder helps with the emulsification of fat in the GI tract.


Explain the Livers role in blood clotting.

Pothrombin and Fibrinogen are made by the liver which are important blood clotting factors.


Explain the Livers role in Calcium Homeostasis.

Vit D3 is made by the skin exposure of cholestarol to UV light, further modified by Liver into 25 hydroxycholecalciferol, then by the kideny to make final 1, 25 dihydroxycholecalciferol.


Explain the Livers role in Body Growth.

Primary action of Growth HOrmone is IGFs ( Interstital growth factora or somatomedins) produced by Liver in response to GH release by Anterior Pituitary Gland.


Explain the Livers role in excretion.

The liver is responsible for adding conjugates to waste products and toxins that are then recognized and excreted by the kidney.


What is the role of the hypothalsmus in regulation of body metabolism by the thyroid gland?

Thyroid gland is regulated by the Hypothalamus (THR). stimulating TSH release from Anterior Pituitary.


What is the role of the pituitary in the regulation of body metabolism by the thyroid gland?

The Anterior pituitary released TSH, with the target being the thyroid gland to release Thyroxin.


What is Thyroxin?

Thyroxin is an Amine HOrmone and require Tyrosine and Iodine for manufacture , active form is T3 (but low levels in blood), inactive form is T4 (high levels in blood).


What is the role of Iodine in the regulation of body metabolism by the thyroid gland?

Iodine is essential for thyroglobulin production and gland will hypertrophy (enlarge) if iodine intake is too low, resulting in a "Goiter"