Flashcards in Final Exam Review Questions From Lecture Deck (39)
what fraction of the cardiac output is delivered to the kidneys each minute?
the blood-filtering structure of the kidey
urine-forming units of the kidneys
which structures in the kidney are associated with the vasa recta?
which cells make up the juxtaglomerular complex?
granular and macula densa cells
how would giving a patient intravenous albumin affect filtration?
due to higher colloid osmotic pressure, the net filtration pressure would be lower
what type of response by the afferent arterioles would you expect if blood pressure increased?
the afferent arterioles would constrict.
when are autoregulatory mechanism most effective?
when the arterial pressure is between 80 and 180
extrinsic controls regulate glomerular filtration rate as a means of regulation what?
systemic blood pressure
what would be the effect on urine output if sodium channel in the tubule cells were inhibited?
the volume would increase
why do high levels of potassium stimulate aldosterone secretion?
aldosterone stimulates the sodium-potassium pump to reabsorb sodium while simultaneously secreting potassium
which process in urine formation is important for regulating blood pH?
how does ADH contribute to the formation of concentrated urine?
ADH increases the permeability of the collecting duct to water by stimulating the insertion of aquporins into the apical membrane
why do people with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus have a fruity odor?
due to the presence of acetone
what features of the bladder predispose it to being able to stretch and relax repeatedly
the walls are highly folded into rugae and epithelium is transitional
another term for urination
2 main fluid compartments within the body
what is the most potent stimulus for thirst?
an increase in plasma osmolality
what happens to urine when the ADH levels are low?
urine is diluted
what indirectly assesses blood sodium levels?
what is the stimulus for release of ANP?
- blood pressure increse
- increase in preload
- the walls of the atria are stretched
the initial H+ regulatory mechanism of the body
the major ECF buffer system in the body
bicarbonate buffer system
how might the pH of the intracellular fluid change when cells increase their rate of metabolism?
the pH would decrease
if the blood pH lowers what change would you expect from the respiratory system?
the respiration rate would increase
what imbalance would severe diarrhea cause?
what metabolic effect would you expect if someone developed an autoimmune disease in which the person's interstitial endocrine cells were destroyed?
testosterone production would plummet
the final sperm carrying duct that deposits sperm into the female reproductive tract
which glands are responsible for producing seminal fluid
seminal glands and the prostate