Final Exam Review Questions From Lecture Flashcards Preview

A&P2 > Final Exam Review Questions From Lecture > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Exam Review Questions From Lecture Deck (39)
Loading flashcards...
1

what fraction of the cardiac output is delivered to the kidneys each minute?

1/4

2

the blood-filtering structure of the kidey

glomerulus

3

urine-forming units of the kidneys

nephrons

4

which structures in the kidney are associated with the vasa recta?

juxtamedullary nephrons

5

which cells make up the juxtaglomerular complex?

granular and macula densa cells

6

how would giving a patient intravenous albumin affect filtration?

due to higher colloid osmotic pressure, the net filtration pressure would be lower

7

what type of response by the afferent arterioles would you expect if blood pressure increased?

the afferent arterioles would constrict.

8

when are autoregulatory mechanism most effective?

when the arterial pressure is between 80 and 180

9

extrinsic controls regulate glomerular filtration rate as a means of regulation what?

systemic blood pressure

10

what would be the effect on urine output if sodium channel in the tubule cells were inhibited?

the volume would increase

11

why do high levels of potassium stimulate aldosterone secretion?

aldosterone stimulates the sodium-potassium pump to reabsorb sodium while simultaneously secreting potassium

12

which process in urine formation is important for regulating blood pH?

secretion

13

how does ADH contribute to the formation of concentrated urine?

ADH increases the permeability of the collecting duct to water by stimulating the insertion of aquporins into the apical membrane

14

why do people with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus have a fruity odor?

due to the presence of acetone

15

what features of the bladder predispose it to being able to stretch and relax repeatedly

the walls are highly folded into rugae and epithelium is transitional

16

another term for urination

micturition

17

2 main fluid compartments within the body

intracellular
extracellular

18

what is the most potent stimulus for thirst?

an increase in plasma osmolality

19

what happens to urine when the ADH levels are low?

urine is diluted

20

what indirectly assesses blood sodium levels?

baroreceptors

21

what is the stimulus for release of ANP?

- blood pressure increse
- increase in preload
- the walls of the atria are stretched

22

the initial H+ regulatory mechanism of the body

chemical buffers

23

the major ECF buffer system in the body

bicarbonate buffer system

24

how might the pH of the intracellular fluid change when cells increase their rate of metabolism?

the pH would decrease

25

if the blood pH lowers what change would you expect from the respiratory system?

the respiration rate would increase

26

what imbalance would severe diarrhea cause?

metabolic acidosis

27

what metabolic effect would you expect if someone developed an autoimmune disease in which the person's interstitial endocrine cells were destroyed?

testosterone production would plummet

28

the final sperm carrying duct that deposits sperm into the female reproductive tract

urethra

29

which glands are responsible for producing seminal fluid

seminal glands and the prostate

30

how many sperm can be released with each ejaculation?

750 million